Create Elegant Data Visualisations Using the Grammar of Graphics

A system for 'declaratively' creating graphics, based on "The Grammar of Graphics". You provide the data, tell 'ggplot2' how to map variables to aesthetics, what graphical primitives to use, and it takes care of the details.

ggplot2 is a system for declaratively creating graphics, based on The Grammar of Graphics. You provide the data, tell ggplot2 how to map variables to aesthetics, what graphical primitives to use, and it takes care of the details.

# Alternatively, install just ggplot2:
# Or the the development version from GitHub:
# install.packages("devtools")

It's hard to succintly describe how ggplot2 works because it embodies a deep philosophy of visualisation. However, in most cases you start with ggplot(), supply a dataset and aesthetic mapping (with aes()). You then add on layers (like geom_point() or geom_histogram()), scales (like scale_colour_brewer()), faceting specifications (like facet_wrap()) and coordinate systems (like coord_flip()).

ggplot(mpg, aes(displ, hwy, colour = class)) + 

If you are new to ggplot2 you are better off starting with a systematic introduction, rather than trying to learn from reading individual documentation pages. Currently, there are three good places to start:

  1. The data visualisation and graphics forcommunication chapters in R for data science. R for data science is designed to give you a comprehensive introduction to the tidyverse, and these two chapters will you get up to speed with the essentials of ggplot2 as quickly as possible.

  2. If you'd like to take an interactive online course, try Data visualisation with ggplot2 by Rick Scavetta on datacamp.

  3. If you want to dive into making common graphics as quickly as possible, I recommend The R Graphics Cookbook by Winston Chang. It provides a set of recipes to solve common graphics problems. A 2nd edition will is due out in 2017.

If you've mastered the basics and want to learn more, read ggplot2: Elegant Graphics for Data Analysis. It describes the theoretical underpinnings of ggplot2 and shows you how all the pieces fit together. This book helps you understand the theory that underpins ggplot2, and will help you create new types of graphic specifically tailored to your needs. The book is not available for free, but you can find the complete source for the book at

There are two main places to get help with ggplot2:

  1. The ggplot2 mailing list is a friendly place to ask any questions about ggplot2. You must be a member to post messages, but anyone can read the archived discussions.

  2. stackoverflow is a great source of answers to common ggplot2 questions. It is also a great place to get help, once you have created a reproducible example that illustrates your problem.


ggplot2 2.2.0

Thanks to @hrbrmstr plots now have subtitles and captions, which can be set with the subtitle and caption arguments to ggtitle() and labs(). You can control their appearance with the theme settings plot.caption and plot.subtitle. The main plot title is now left-aligned to better work better with a subtitle. The caption is right-aligned (@hrbrmstr).

position_stack() and position_fill() now sort the stacking order to match grouping order. This allows you to control the order through grouping, and ensures that the default legend matches the plot (#1552, #1593). If you want the opposite order (useful if you have horizontal bars and horizontal legend), you can request reverse stacking by using position = position_stack(reverse = TRUE) (#1837).

position_stack() and position_fill() now accepts negative values which will create stacks extending below the x-axis (#1691).

position_stack() and position_fill() gain a vjust argument which makes it easy to (e.g.) display labels in the middle of stacked bars (#1821).

geom_col() was added to complement geom_bar() (@hrbrmstr). It uses stat="identity" by default, making the y aesthetic mandatory. It does not support any other stat_() and does not provide fallback support for the binwidth parameter. Examples and references in other functions were updated to demonstrate geom_col() usage.

When creating a layer, ggplot2 will warn if you use an unknown aesthetic or an unknown parameter. Compared to the previous version, this is stricter for aesthetics (previously there was no message), and less strict for parameters (previously this threw an error) (#1585).

The facet system, as well as the internal panel class, has been rewritten in ggproto. Facets are now extendable in the same manner as geoms and stats, as described in vignette("extending-ggplot2").

We have also added the following new fatures.

  • facet_grid() and facet_wrap() now allow expressions in their facetting formulas (@DanRuderman, #1596).

  • When facet_wrap() results in an uneven number of panels, axes will now be drawn underneath the hanging panels (fixes #1607)

  • Strips can now be freely positioned in facet_wrap() using the strip.position argument (deprecates switch).

  • The relative order of panel, strip, and axis can now be controlled with the theme setting strip.placement that takes either inside (strip between panel and axis) or outside (strip after axis).

  • The theme option panel.margin has been deprecated in favour of panel.spacing to more clearly communicate intent.

Unfortunately there was a major oversight in the construction of ggproto which lead to extensions capturing the super object at package build time, instead of at package run time (#1826). This problem has been fixed, but requires re-installation of all extension packages.

  • The position of x and y axes can now be changed using the position argument in scale_x_*and scale_y_* which can take top and bottom, and left and right respectively. The themes of top and right axes can be modified using the .top and .right modifiers to axis.text.* and axis.title.*.
  • scale_x_continuous() and scale_y_continuous() can now display a secondary axis that is a one-to-one transformation of the primary axis (e.g. degrees Celcius to degrees Fahrenheit). The secondary axis will be positioned opposite to the primary axis and can be controlled with the sec.axis argument to the scale constructor.

  • Scales worry less about having breaks. If no breaks can be computed, the plot will work instead of throwing an uninformative error (#791). This is particularly helpful when you have facets with free scales, and not all panels contain data.

  • Scales now warn when transformation introduces infinite values (#1696).

  • scale_*_datetime() now supports time zones. It will use the timezone attached to the varaible by default, but can be overridden with the timezone argument.

  • New scale_x_time() and scale_y_time() generate reasonable default breaks and labels for hms vectors (#1752).

The treatment of missing values by discrete scales has been thoroughly overhauled (#1584). The underlying principle is that we can naturally represent missing values on discrete variables (by treating just like another level), so by default we should.

This principle applies to:

  • character vectors
  • factors with implicit NA
  • factors with explicit NA

And to all scales (both position and non-position.)

Compared to the previous version of ggplot2, there are three main changes:

  1. scale_x_discrete() and scale_y_discrete() always show discrete NA, regardless of their source

  2. If present, NAs are shown in discete legends.

  3. All discrete scales gain a na.translate argument that allows you to control whether NAs are translated to something that can be visualised, or should be left as missing. Note that if you don't translate (i.e. na.translate = FALSE) the missing values will passed on to the layer, which will warning that it's dropping missing values. To suppress the warnings, you'll also need to add na.rm = TRUE to the layer call.

There were also a number of other smaller changes

  • Correctly use scale expansion factors.
  • Don't preserve space for dropped levels (#1638).
  • Only issue one warning when when asking for too many levels (#1674).
  • Unicode labels work better on Windows (#1827).
  • Warn when used with only continuous data (#1589)
  • The theme() constructor now has named arguments rather than ellipses. This should make autocomplete substantially more useful. The documentation (including exampes) has been considerably improved.

  • Built-in themes are more visually homogeneous, and match theme_grey better. (@jiho, #1679)

  • When computing the height of titles, ggplot2 now includes the height of the descenders (i.e. the bits of g and y that hang beneath the baseline). This improves the margins around titles, particularly the y axis label (#1712). I have also very slightly increased the inner margins of axis titles, and removed the outer margins.

  • Theme element inheritance is now easier to work with as modification now overrides default element_blank elements (#1555, #1557, #1565, #1567)

  • Horizontal legends (i.e. legends on the top or bottom) are horizontally aligned by default (#1842). Use = "vertical" to switch back to the previous behaviour.

  • element_line() now takes an arrow argument to specify arrows at the end of lines (#1740)

There were a number of tweaks to the theme elements that control legends:

  • legend.justification now controls appearance will plotting the legend outside of the plot area. For example, you can use theme(legend.justification = "top") to make the legend align with the top of the plot.

  • panel.margin and legend.margin have been renamed to panel.spacing and legend.spacing respectively, to better communicate intent (they only affect spacing between legends and panels, not the margins around them)

  • legend.margin now controls margin around individual legends.

  • New,, and control the background, spacing, and margin of the legend box (the region that contains all legends).

  • ggplot2 now imports tibble. This ensures that all built-in datasets print compactly even if you haven't explicitly loaded tibble or dplyr (#1677).

  • Class of aesthetic mapping is preserved when adding aes() objects (#1624).

  • now works for lists that include data frames.

  • annotation_x() now works in the absense of global data (#1655)

  • geom_*(show.legend = FALSE) now works for guide_colorbar.

  • geom_boxplot() gains new outlier.alpha (@jonathan-g) and outlier.fill (@schloerke, #1787) parameters to control the alpha/fill of outlier points independently of the alpha of the boxes.

  • position_jitter() (and hence geom_jitter()) now correctly computes the jitter width/jitter when supplied by the user (#1775, @has2k1).

  • geom_contour() more clearly describes what inputs it needs (#1577).

  • geom_curve() respects the lineend paramater (#1852).

  • geom_histogram() and stat_bin() understand the breaks parameter once more. (#1665). The floating point adjustment for histogram bins is now actually used - it was previously inadvertently ignored (#1651).

  • geom_violin() no longer transforms quantile lines with the alpha aesthetic (@mnbram, #1714). It no longer errors when quantiles are requested but data have zero range (#1687). When trim = FALSE it once again has a nice range that allows the density to reach zero (by extending the range 3 bandwidths to either side of the data) (#1700).

  • geom_dotplot() works better when facetting and binning on the y-axis. (#1618, @has2k1).

  • geom_hexbin() once again supports ..density.. (@mikebirdgeneau, #1688).

  • geom_step() gives useful warning if only one data point in layer (#1645).

  • layer() gains new check.aes and check.param arguments. These allow geom/stat authors to optional suppress checks for known aesthetics/parameters. Currently this is used only in geom_blank() which powers expand_limits() (#1795).

  • All stat_*() display a better error message when required aesthetics are missing.

  • stat_bin() and stat_summary_hex() now accept length 1 binwidth (#1610)

  • stat_density() gains new argument n, which is passed to underlying function stats::density ("number of equally spaced points at which the density is to be estimated"). (@hbuschme)

  • stat_binhex() now again returns count rather than value (#1747)

  • stat_ecdf() respects pad argument (#1646).

  • stat_smooth() once again informs you about the method it has chosen. It also correctly calculates the size of the largest group within facets.

  • x and y scales are now symmetric regarding the list of aesthetics they accept: xmin_final, xmax_final, xlower, xmiddle and xupper are now valid x aesthetics.

  • Scale extensions can now override the make_title and make_sec_title methods to let the scale modify the axis/legend titles.

ggplot2 2.1.0

  • When mapping an aesthetic to a constant (e.g. geom_smooth(aes(colour = "loess")))), the default guide title is the name of the aesthetic (i.e. "colour"), not the value (i.e. "loess") (#1431).

  • layer() now accepts a function as the data argument. The function will be applied to the data passed to the ggplot() function and must return a data.frame (#1527, @thomasp85). This is a more general version of the deprecated subset argument.

  • theme_update() now uses the + operator instead of %+replace%, so that unspecified values will no longer be NULLed out. theme_replace() preserves the old behaviour if desired (@oneillkza, #1519).

  • stat_bin() has been overhauled to use the same algorithm as ggvis, which has been considerably improved thanks to the advice of Randy Prium (@rpruim). This includes:

    • Better arguments and a better algorithm for determining the origin. You can now specify either boundary or the center of a bin. origin has been deprecated in favour of these arguments.

    • drop is deprecated in favour of pad, which adds extra 0-count bins at either end (needed for frequency polygons). geom_histogram() defaults to pad = FALSE which considerably improves the default limits for the histogram, especially when the bins are big (#1477).

    • The default algorithm does a (somewhat) better job at picking nice widths and origins across a wider range of input data.

    • bins = n now gives a histogram with n bins, not n + 1 (#1487).

  • All \donttest{} examples run.

  • All geom_() and stat_() functions now have consistent argument order: data + mapping, then geom/stat/position, then ..., then specific arguments, then arguments common to all layers (#1305). This may break code if you were previously relying on partial name matching, but in the long-term should make ggplot2 easier to use. In particular, you can now set the n parameter in geom_density2d() without it partially matching na.rm (#1485).

  • For geoms with both colour and fill, alpha once again only affects fill (Reverts #1371, #1523). This was causing problems for people.

  • facet_wrap()/facet_grid() works with multiple empty panels of data (#1445).

  • facet_wrap() correctly swaps nrow and ncol when facetting vertically (#1417).

  • ggsave("x.svg") now uses svglite to produce the svg (#1432).

  • geom_boxplot() now understands outlier.color (#1455).

  • geom_path() knows that "solid" (not just 1) represents a solid line (#1534).

  • geom_ribbon() preserves missing values so they correctly generate a gap in the ribbon (#1549).

  • geom_tile() once again accepts width and height parameters (#1513). It uses draw_key_polygon() for better a legend, including a coloured outline (#1484).

  • layer() now automatically adds a na.rm parameter if none is explicitly supplied.

  • position_jitterdodge() now works on all possible dodge aesthetics, e.g. color, linetype etc. instead of only based on fill (@bleutner)

  • position = "nudge" now works (although it doesn't do anything useful) (#1428).

  • The default scale for columns of class "AsIs" is now "identity" (#1518).

  • scale_*_discrete() has better defaults when used with purely continuous data (#1542).

  • scale_size() warns when used with categorical data.

  • scale_size(), scale_colour(), and scale_fill() gain date and date-time variants (#1526).

  • stat_bin_hex() and stat_bin_summary() now use the same underlying algorithm so results are consistent (#1383). stat_bin_hex() now accepts a weight aesthetic. To be consistent with related stats, the output variable from stat_bin_hex() is now value instead of count.

  • stat_density() gains a bw parameter which makes it easy to get consistent smoothing between facets (@jiho)

  • stat-density-2d() no longer ignores the h parameter, and now accepts bins and binwidth parameters to control the number of contours (#1448, @has2k1).

  • stat_ecdf() does a better job of adding padding to -Inf/Inf, and gains an argument pad to suppress the padding if not needed (#1467).

  • stat_function() gains an xlim parameter (#1528). It once again works with discrete x values (#1509).

  • stat_summary() preserves sorted x order which avoids artefacts when display results with geom_smooth() (#1520).

  • All elements should now inherit correctly for all themes except theme_void(). (@Katiedaisey, #1555)

  • theme_void() was completely void of text but facets and legends still need labels. They are now visible (@jiho).

  • You can once again set legend key and height width to unit arithmetic objects (like 2 * unit(1, "cm")) (#1437).

  • Eliminate spurious warning if you have a layer with no data and no aesthetics (#1451).

  • Removed a superfluous comma in theme-defaults.r code (@jschoeley)

  • Fixed a compatibility issue with ggproto and R versions prior to 3.1.2. (#1444)

  • Fixed issue where coord_map() fails when given an explicit parameters argument (@tdmcarthur, #1729)

ggplot2 2.0.0

  • ggplot no longer throws an error if you your plot has no layers. Instead it automatically adds geom_blank() (#1246).

  • New cut_width() is a convenient replacement for the verbose plyr::round_any(), with the additional benefit of offering finer control.

  • New geom_count() is a convenient alias to stat_sum(). Use it when you have overlapping points on a scatterplot. stat_sum() now defaults to using counts instead of proportions.

  • New geom_curve() adds curved lines, with a similar specification to geom_segment() (@veraanadi, #1088).

  • Date and datetime scales now have date_breaks, date_minor_breaks and date_labels arguments so that you never need to use the long scales::date_breaks() or scales::date_format().

  • geom_bar() now has it's own stat, distinct from stat_bin() which was also used by geom_histogram(). geom_bar() now uses stat_count() which counts values at each distinct value of x (i.e. it does not bin the data first). This can be useful when you want to show exactly which values are used in a continuous variable.

  • geom_point() gains a stroke aesthetic which controls the border width of shapes 21-25 (#1133, @SeySayux). size and stroke are additive so a point with size = 5 and stroke = 5 will have a diameter of 10mm. (#1142)

  • New position_nudge() allows you to slightly offset labels (or other geoms) from their corresponding points (#1109).

  • scale_size() now maps values to area, not radius. Use scale_radius() if you want the old behaviour (not recommended, except perhaps for lines).

  • New stat_summary_bin() works like stat_summary() but on binned data. It's a generalisation of stat_bin() that can compute any aggregate, not just counts (#1274). Both default to mean_se() if no aggregation functions are supplied (#1386).

  • Layers are now much stricter about their arguments - you will get an error if you've supplied an argument that isn't an aesthetic or a parameter. This is likely to cause some short-term pain but in the long-term it will make it much easier to spot spelling mistakes and other errors (#1293).

    This change does break a handful of geoms/stats that used ... to pass additional arguments on to the underlying computation. Now geom_smooth()/stat_smooth() and geom_quantile()/stat_quantile() use method.args instead (#1245, #1289); and stat_summary() (#1242), stat_summary_hex(), and stat_summary2d() use fun.args.

There is now an official mechanism for defining Stats, Geoms, and Positions in other packages. See vignette("extending-ggplot2") for details.

  • All Geoms, Stats and Positions are now exported, so you can inherit from them when making your own objects (#989).

  • ggplot2 no longer uses proto or reference classes. Instead, we now use ggproto, a new OO system designed specifically for ggplot2. Unlike proto and RC, ggproto supports clean cross-package inheritance. Creating a new OO system isn't usually the right way to solve a problem, but I'm pretty sure it was necessary here. Read more about it in the vignette.

  • aes_() replaces aes_q(). It also supports formulas, so the most concise SE version of aes(carat, price) is now aes_(~carat, ~price). You may want to use this form in packages, as it will avoid spurious R CMD check warnings about undefined global variables.

  • geom_text() has been overhauled to make labelling your data a little easier. It:

    • nudge_x and nudge_y arguments let you offset labels from their corresponding points (#1120).

    • check_overlap = TRUE provides a simple way to avoid overplotting of labels: labels that would otherwise overlap are omitted (#1039).

    • hjust and vjust can now be character vectors: "left", "center", "right", "bottom", "middle", "top". New options include "inward" and "outward" which align text towards and away from the center of the plot respectively.

  • geom_label() works like geom_text() but draws a rounded rectangle underneath each label (#1039). This is useful when you want to label plots that are dense with data.

  • The little used aes_auto() has been deprecated.

  • aes_q() has been replaced with aes_() to be consistent with SE versions of NSE functions in other packages.

  • The order aesthetic is officially deprecated. It never really worked, and was poorly documented.

  • The stat and position arguments to qplot() have been deprecated. qplot() is designed for quick plots - if you need to specify position or stat, use ggplot() instead.

  • The theme setting axis.ticks.margin has been deprecated: now use the margin property of axis.ticks.

  • stat_abline(), stat_hline() and stat_vline() have been removed: these were never suitable for use other than with geom_abline() etc and were not documented.

  • show_guide has been renamed to show.legend: this more accurately reflects what it does (controls appearance of layer in legend), and uses the same convention as other ggplot2 arguments (i.e. a . between names). (Yes, I know that's inconsistent with function names with use _, but it's too late to change now.)

A number of geoms have been renamed to be internally consistent:

  • stat_binhex() and stat_bin2d() have been renamed to stat_bin_hex() and stat_bin_2d() (#1274). stat_summary2d() has been renamed to stat_summary_2d(), geom_density2d()/stat_density2d() has been renamed to geom_density_2d()/stat_density_2d().

  • stat_spoke() is now geom_spoke() since I realised it's a reparameterisation of `geom_segment().

  • stat_bindot() has been removed because it's so tightly coupled to geom_dotplot(). If you happened to use stat_bindot(), just change to geom_dotplot() (#1194).

All defunct functions have been removed.

  • The default theme_grey() background colour has been changed from "grey90" to "grey92": this makes the background a little less visually prominent.

  • Labels and titles have been tweaked for readability:

    • Axes labels are darker.

    • Legend and axis titles are given the same visual treatment.

    • The default font size dropped from 12 to 11. You might be surprised that I've made the default text size smaller as it was already hard for many people to read. It turns out there was a bug in RStudio (fixed in 0.99.724), that shrunk the text of all grid based graphics. Once that was resolved the defaults seemed too big to my eyes.

    • More spacing between titles and borders.

    • Default margins scale with the theme font size, so the appearance at larger font sizes should be considerably improved (#1228).

  • alpha now affects both fill and colour aesthetics (#1371).

  • element_text() gains a margins argument which allows you to add additional padding around text elements. To help see what's going on use debug = TRUE to display the text region and anchors.

  • The default font size in geom_text() has been decreased from 5mm (14 pts) to 3.8 mm (11 pts) to match the new default theme sizes.

  • A diagonal line is no longer drawn on bar and rectangle legends. Instead, the border has been tweaked to be more visible, and more closely match the size of line drawn on the plot.

  • geom_pointrange() and geom_linerange() get vertical (not horizontal) lines in the legend (#1389).

  • The default line size for geom_smooth() has been increased from 0.5 to 1 to make it easier to see when overlaid on data.

  • geom_bar() and geom_rect() use a slightly paler shade of grey so they aren't so visually heavy.

  • geom_boxplot() now colours outliers the same way as the boxes.

  • geom_point() now uses shape 19 instead of 16. This looks much better on the default Linux graphics device. (It's very slightly smaller than the old point, but it shouldn't affect any graphics significantly)

  • Sizes in ggplot2 are measured in mm. Previously they were converted to pts (for use in grid) by multiplying by 72 / 25.4. However, grid uses printer's points, not Adobe (big pts), so sizes are now correctly multiplied by 72.27 / 25.4. This is unlikely to noticeably affect display, but it's technically correct (

  • The default legend will now allocate multiple rows (if vertical) or columns (if horizontal) in order to make a legend that is more likely to fit on the screen. You can override with the nrow/ncol arguments to guide_legend()

    p <- ggplot(mpg, aes(displ,hwy, colour = model)) + geom_point()
    p + theme(legend.position = "bottom")
    # Previous behaviour
    p + guides(colour = guide_legend(ncol = 1))
  • New theme_void() is completely empty. It's useful for plots with non- standard coordinates or for drawings (@jiho, #976).

  • New theme_dark() has a dark background designed to make colours pop out (@jiho, #1018)

  • theme_minimal() became slightly more minimal by removing the axis ticks: labels now line up directly beneath grid lines (@tomschloss, #1084)

  • New theme setting panel.ontop (logical) make it possible to place background elements (i.e., gridlines) on top of data. Best used with transparent panel.background (@noamross. #551).

The facet labelling system was updated with many new features and a more flexible interface (@lionel-). It now works consistently across grid and wrap facets. The most important user visible changes are:

  • facet_wrap() gains a labeller option (#25).

  • facet_grid() and facet_wrap() gain a switch argument to display the facet titles near the axes. When switched, the labels become axes subtitles. switch can be set to "x", "y" or "both" (the latter only for grids) to control which margin is switched.

The labellers (such as label_value() or label_both()) also get some new features:

  • They now offer the multi_line argument to control whether to display composite facets (those specified as ~var1 + var2) on one or multiple lines.

  • In label_bquote() you now refer directly to the names of variables. With this change, you can create math expressions that depend on more than one variable. This math expression can be specified either for the rows or the columns and you can also provide different expressions to each margin.

    As a consequence of these changes, referring to x in backquoted expressions is deprecated.

  • Similarly to label_bquote(), labeller() now take .rows and .cols arguments. In addition, it also takes .default. labeller() is useful to customise how particular variables are labelled. The three additional arguments specify how to label the variables are not specifically mentioned, respectively for rows, columns or both. This makes it especially easy to set up a project-wide labeller dispatcher that can be reused across all your plots. See the documentation for an example.

  • The new labeller label_context() adapts to the number of factors facetted over. With a single factor, it displays only the values, just as before. But with multiple factors in a composite margin (e.g. with ~cyl + am), the labels are passed over to label_both(). This way the variables names are displayed with the values to help identifying them.

On the programming side, the labeller API has been rewritten in order to offer more control when facetting over multiple factors (e.g. with formulae such as ~cyl + am). This also means that if you have written custom labellers, you will need to update them for this version of ggplot.

  • Previously, a labeller function would take variable and value arguments and return a character vector. Now, they take a data frame of character vectors and return a list. The input data frame has one column per factor facetted over and each column in the returned list becomes one line in the strip label. See documentation for more details.

  • The labels received by a labeller now contain metadata: their margin (in the "type" attribute) and whether they come from a wrap or a grid facet (in the "facet" attribute).

  • Note that the new as_labeller() function operator provides an easy way to transform an existing function to a labeller function. The existing function just needs to take and return a character vector.

  • Improved documentation for aes(), layer() and much much more.

  • I've tried to reduce the use of ... so that you can see all the documentation in one place rather than having to integrate multiple pages. In some cases this has involved adding additional arguments to geoms to make it more clear what you can do:

    • geom_smooth() gains explicit method, se and formula arguments.

    • geom_histogram() gains binwidth, bins, originandright` arguments.

    • geom_jitter() gains width and height arguments to make it easier to control the amount of jittering without using the lengthy position_jitter() function (#1116)

  • Use of qplot() in examples has been minimised (#1123, @hrbrmstr). This is inline with the 2nd edition of the ggplot2 box, which minimises the use of qplot() in favour of ggplot().

  • Tighly linked geoms and stats (e.g. geom_boxplot() and stat_boxplot()) are now documented in the same file so you can see all the arguments in one place. Variations of the same idea (e.g. geom_path(), geom_line(), and geom_step()) are also documented together.

  • It's now obvious that you can set the binwidth parameter for stat_bin_hex(), stat_summary_hex(), stat_bin_2d(), and stat_summary_2d().

  • The internals of positions have been cleaned up considerably. You're unlikely to notice any external changes, although the documentation should be a little less confusing since positions now don't list parameters they never use.

  • All datasets have class tbl_df so if you also use dplyr, you get a better print method.

  • economics has been brought up to date to 2015-04-01.

  • New economics_long is the economics data in long form.

  • New txhousing dataset containing information about the Texas housing market. Useful for examples that need multiple time series, and for demonstrating model+vis methods.

  • New luv_colours dataset which contains the locations of all built-in colors() in Luv space.

  • movies has been moved into its own package, ggplot2movies, because it was large and not terribly useful. If you've used the movies dataset, you'll now need to explicitly load the package with library(ggplot2movies).

  • All partially matched arguments and $ have been been replaced with full matches (@jimhester, #1134).

  • ggplot2 now exports alpha() from the scales package (#1107), and arrow() and unit() from grid (#1225). This means you don't need attach scales/grid or do scales::/grid:: for these commonly used functions.

  • aes_string() now only parses character inputs. This fixes bugs when using it with numbers and non default OutDec settings (#1045).

  • annotation_custom() automatically adds a unique id to each grob name, making it easier to plot multiple grobs with the same name (e.g. grobs of ggplot2 graphics) in the same plot (#1256).

  • borders() now accepts xlim and ylim arguments for specifying the geographical region of interest (@markpayneatwork, #1392).

  • coord_cartesian() applies the same expansion factor to limits as for scales. You can suppress with expand = FALSE (#1207).

  • coord_trans() now works when breaks are suppressed (#1422).

  • cut_number() gives error message if the number of requested bins can be created because there are two few unique values (#1046).

  • Character labels in facet_grid() are no longer (incorrectly) coerced into factors. This caused problems with custom label functions (#1070).

  • facet_wrap() and facet_grid() now allow you to use non-standard variable names by surrounding them with backticks (#1067).

  • facet_wrap() more carefully checks its nrow and ncol arguments to ensure that they're specified correctly (@richierocks, #962)

  • facet_wrap() gains a dir argument to control the direction the panels are wrapped in. The default is "h" for horizontal. Use "v" for vertical layout (#1260).

  • geom_abline(), geom_hline() and geom_vline() have been rewritten to have simpler behaviour and be more consistent:

    • stat_abline(), stat_hline() and stat_vline() have been removed: these were never suitable for use other than with geom_abline() etc and were not documented.

    • geom_abline(), geom_vline() and geom_hline() are bound to stat_identity() and position_identity()

    • Intercept parameters can no longer be set to a function.

    • They are all documented in one file, since they are so closely related.

  • geom_bin2d() will now let you specify one dimension's breaks exactly, without touching the other dimension's default breaks at all (#1126).

  • geom_crossbar() sets grouping correctly so you can display multiple crossbars on one plot. It also makes the default fatten argument a little bigger to make the middle line more obvious (#1125).

  • geom_histogram() and geom_smooth() now only inform you about the default values once per layer, rather than once per panel (#1220).

  • geom_pointrange() gains fatten argument so you can control the size of the point relative to the size of the line.

  • geom_segment() annotations were not transforming with scales (@BrianDiggs, #859).

  • geom_smooth() is no longer so chatty. If you want to know what the deafult smoothing method is, look it up in the documentation! (#1247)

  • geom_violin() now has the ability to draw quantile lines (@DanRuderman).

  • ggplot() now captures the parent frame to use for evaluation, rather than always defaulting to the global environment. This should make ggplot more suitable to use in more situations (e.g. with knitr)

  • ggsave() has been simplified a little to make it easier to maintain. It no longer checks that you're printing a ggplot2 object (so now also works with any grid grob) (#970), and always requires a filename. Parameter device now supports character argument to specify which supported device to use ('pdf', 'png', 'jpeg', etc.), for when it cannot be correctly inferred from the file extension (for example when a temporary filename is supplied server side in shiny apps) (@sebkopf, #939). It no longer opens a graphics device if one isn't already open - this is annoying when you're running from a script (#1326).

  • guide_colorbar() creates correct legend if only one color (@krlmlr, #943).

  • guide_colorbar() no longer fails when the legend is empty - previously this often masked misspecifications elsewhere in the plot (#967).

  • New layer_data() function extracts the data used for plotting for a given layer. It's mostly useful for testing.

  • User supplied minor_breaks can now be supplied on the same scale as the data, and will be automatically transformed with by scale (#1385).

  • You can now suppress the appearance of an axis/legend title (and the space that would allocated for it) with NULL in the scale_ function. To use the default lable, use waiver() (#1145).

  • Position adjustments no longer warn about potentially varying ranges because the problem rarely occurs in practice and there are currently a lot of false positives since I don't understand exactly what FP criteria I should be testing.

  • scale_fill_grey() now uses red for missing values. This matches scale_colour_grey() and makes it obvious where missing values lie. Override with na.value.

  • scale_*_gradient2() defaults to using Lab colour space.

  • scale_*_gradientn() now allows colours or colors (#1290)

  • scale_y_continuous() now also transforms the lower, middle and upper aesthetics used by geom_boxplot(): this only affects geom_boxplot(stat = "identity") (#1020).

  • Legends no longer inherit aesthetics if inherit.aes is FALSE (#1267).

  • lims() makes it easy to set the limits of any axis (#1138).

  • labels = NULL now works with guide_legend() and guide_colorbar(). (#1175, #1183).

  • override.aes now works with American aesthetic spelling, e.g. color

  • Scales no longer round data points to improve performance of colour palettes. Instead the scales package now uses a much faster colour interpolation algorithm (#1022).

  • scale_*_brewer() and scale_*_distiller() add new direction argument of scales::brewer_pal, making it easier to change the order of colours (@jiho, #1139).

  • scale_x_date() now clips dates outside the limits in the same way as scale_x_continuous() (#1090).

  • stat_bin() gains bins arguments, which denotes the number of bins. Now you can set bins=100 instead of binwidth=0.5. Note that breaks or binwidth will override it (@tmshn, #1158, #102).

  • stat_boxplot() warns if a continuous variable is used for the x aesthetic without also supplying a group aesthetic (#992, @krlmlr).

  • stat_summary_2d() and stat_bin_2d() now share exactly the same code for determining breaks from bins, binwidth, and origin.

  • stat_summary_2d() and stat_bin_2d() now output in tile/raster compatible form instead of rect compatible form.

  • Automatically computed breaks do not lead to an error for transformations like "probit" where the inverse can map to infinity (#871, @krlmlr)

  • stat_function() now always evaluates the function on the original scale. Previously it computed the function on transformed scales, giving incorrect values (@BrianDiggs, #1011).

  • strip_dots works with anonymous functions within calculated aesthetics (e.g. aes(sapply(..density.., function(x) mean(x)))) (#1154, @NikNakk)

  • theme() gains validate = FALSE parameter to turn off validation, and hence store arbitrary additional data in the themes. (@tdhock, #1121)

  • Improved the calculation of segments needed to draw the curve representing a line when plotted in polar coordinates. In some cases, the last segment of a multi-segment line was not drawn (@BrianDiggs, #952)

Reference manual

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2.2.1 by Hadley Wickham, 2 months ago,

Report a bug at

Browse source code at

Authors: Hadley Wickham [aut, cre], Winston Chang [aut], RStudio [cph]

Documentation:   PDF Manual  

Task views: Graphic Displays & Dynamic Graphics & Graphic Devices & Visualization, Phylogenetics, Especially Comparative Methods

GPL-2 | file LICENSE license

Imports digest, grid, gtable, MASS, plyr, reshape2, scales, stats, tibble, lazyeval

Suggests covr, ggplot2movies, hexbin, Hmisc, lattice, mapproj, maps, maptools, mgcv, multcomp, nlme, testthat, quantreg, knitr, rpart, rmarkdown, svglite

Enhances sp

Imported by ABHgenotypeR, ACDm, AFM, ANOM, AdaptGauss, AlignStat, BACA, BACCT, BBEST, BETS, BTSPAS, BacArena, BayesFM, Bclim, BioPET, BioStatR, Biograph, CALF, CampaR1, Causata, ChainLadder, ChannelAttributionApp, ChaosGame, ClimClass, ClusterR, CollapsABEL, CommT, Conigrave, CopulaDTA, CosmoPhotoz, DFIT, DTR, DVHmetrics, DataExplorer, DeLorean, DescribeDisplay, DiallelAnalysisR, DiversityOccupancy, DstarM, EEM, EasyHTMLReport, EcoGenetics, EffectLiteR, EmpiricalCalibration, EnvStats, EpiDynamics, Evomorph, FAOSTAT, FLightR, FREddyPro, Fgmutils, FinCal, FindIt, FreqProf, G2Sd, GCalignR, GDINA, GERGM, GGally, GeomComb, GerminaR, HLMdiag, HTSSIP, HighDimOut, HistDAWass, HoRM, IAPWS95, IAT, IGM.MEA, IMP, IPtoCountry, IncucyteDRC, Information, InformationValue, IntClust, IntegratedJM, IntegratedMRF, KraljicMatrix, LANDD, LBSPR, LOGIT, LocFDRPois, MAVIS, MEGENA, MRMR, MSCMT, MSGARCH, MaxentVariableSelection, MendelianRandomization, MetaIntegrator, Methplot, MiRAnorm, MixSIAR, Mobilize, Momocs, MultiMeta, NFP, NMF, NORRRM, NPflow, NetworkRiskMeasures, NeuralNetTools, OpasnetUtils, OpenStreetMap, P2C2M, PGRdup, PReMiuM, PTXQC, Phxnlme, PhyInformR, Plasmidprofiler, PlotPrjNetworks, PopED, PopGenReport, PredPsych, PredictTestbench, QCAtools, QCSimulator, QuantumClone, RBMRB, RDS, RFmarkerDetector, RGraphics, RImagePalette, RPPanalyzer, RSSL, RStoolbox, RcmdrPlugin.FuzzyClust, RmarineHeatWaves, RobustEM, RtutoR, SCGLR, SHELF, SemiParBIVProbit, SensMixed, SensusR, SeqFeatR, ShinyItemAnalysis, SixSigma, SpaCCr, SpaDES, StatRank, StroupGLMM, SurvRank, TELP, TSMining, TSS.RESTREND, TippingPoint, TreatmentSelection, UpSetR, VDAP, VRPM, VetResearchLMM, WVPlots, Wats, acc, adapr, adegenet, admixturegraph, advclust, aimPlot, alm, alphahull, antitrust, aop, asVPC, aslib, asremlPlus, assignPOP, autoimage, backShift, bamdit, bayesAB, bayesplot, bcrm, bdscale, bdvis, bea.R, bibliometrix, bioinactivation, bioplots, blkbox, blockseg, blscrapeR, bmlm, bmmix, bossMaps, brainGraph, breakpoint, bridger2, broman, bsam, burnr, capm, caretEnsemble, catenary, cdom, cellWise, choroplethr, choroplethrAdmin1, classify, classyfire, cleanEHR, clhs, clifro, climbeR, clustRcompaR, cmaesr, cobalt, cocoreg, cofeatureR, colormap, colorplaner, colourpicker, complmrob, confidence, cooccur, corrr, cosinor, countyweather, covafillr, covmat, cplm, cricketr, crosstalk, cutoffR, darch, darksky, dcmr, ddpcr, dendextend, detzrcr, dfpk, diagis, diveRsity, docxtools, drLumi, dsm, dynsim, dynsurv, edarf, edeaR, edgar, edstan, eechidna, effectFusion, ega, egcm, emdi, emil, emojifont, enpls, episensr, episheet, esmisc, evolqg, evoper, explor, exploreR, exreport, extracat, eyetrackingR, ez, ezsim, fSRM, fdq, fheatmap, findviews, fitcoach, forecast, frailtySurv, funModeling, futureheatwaves, fuzzyforest, gWQS, geneSLOPE, gfcanalysis, ggExtra, ggRandomForests, ggThemeAssist, ggdendro, ggdmc, ggenealogy, ggguitar, gghalfnorm, ggiraphExtra, gglogo, ggloop, ggsci, ggspectra, ggstance, ggthemes, gitter, glycanr, gmum.r, gogamer, greport, gridsampler, growcurves, growfunctions, gtrendsR, gunsales, hBayesDM, hdm, hdnom, heatmaply, heemod, hierarchicalDS, hierarchicalSets, hurricaneexposure, hybridModels, hyfo, iJRF, iNEXT, iWISA, ibmdbR, imageData, imputeTestbench, incidence, inctools, intsvy, ipft, jmv, kdetrees, kobe, largeVis, ldatuning, learningCurve,, llama, lmerTest, logisticPCA, lsl, lvplot, mafs, manhattanly, mapr, marmap, mdpeer, mdsr, merTools, metaMix, metacoder, metagen, metaheur, metaplotr, metaviz, mglR, microbenchmark, micromap, miscset, mistral, mizer, mlmc, mlr, morse, mousetrap, moveHMM, mplot, mpoly, mrMLM, mtconnectR, multiDimBio, multipanelfigure, mvdalab, myTAI, netgen, networkreporting, nhstplot, nima, nlstimedist, nparACT, npregfast, oaPlots, oaxaca, obAnalytics, oddsratio, onlineCPD, optiRum, orderedLasso, osmplotr, pRF, pa, pacotest, paleofire, partialAR, patPRO, patternplot, pcrsim, pems.utils, performanceEstimation, permubiome, phylopath, pinbasic,, pirate, planar, platetools, plotMElm, plotluck, plotrr, pmc, pogit, poppr, powerbydesign, prcbench, prcr, preText, precrec, predictionInterval, predictmeans, preprosim, preproviz, primerTree, prism, productplots, prophet, propr, proteomics, pscore, qdap, qgraph, qicharts, quanteda, quickReg, qwraps2, r2glmm, rAltmetric, rKIN, rSARP, rSPACE, rWBclimate, radiant.basics, radiant.model, radiant.multivariate, rags2ridges, randomUniformForest, rangeMapper, raptr, rbison, rbokeh, rchess, rddtools, readability, reda, refund, refund.shiny, repijson, replicationInterval, reproducer, rfPermute, rfigshare, rfisheries, rgbif, rinat, rmcfs, rnoaa, rnrfa, robustlmm, rplos, rprev, rpsftm, rrepast, rrr, rstanarm, rvertnet, rwirelesscom, ryouready, sValues, saeRobust, saeSim, scatterpie, scmamp, sdcMicro, sentimentr, sgd, shinystan, sidier, simPH, sjPlot, slackr, smoof, snht, snpEnrichment, solarius, sorvi, sparsediscrim, sparsevar, spcosa, specmine, spef, spikeSlabGAM, spongecake, squid, ss3sim, starma, starmie, statar, statcheck, statebins, stormwindmodel, strataG, structSSI, strvalidator, subspaceMOA, superheat, survMisc, svdvis, swfscMisc, sysid, tadaatoolbox, tcgsaseq, thief, tidyquant, tidyverse, tigerstats, timelineS, toaster, treeclim, treemap, trelliscope, tsiR, tvm, tweet2r, ubeR, userfriendlyscience, valr, valuer, vdmR, viridis, vmsbase, voxel, wakefield, waterfalls, wppExplorer, x.ent, xxIRT, yorkr, yuimaGUI, zebu, ztype.

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Suggested by ARPobservation, ARTool, AmyloGram, BCEA, BatchGetSymbols, BlandAltmanLeh, Cyclops, DGCA, DrBats, EFDR, ExtDist, FField, GDAdata, GSODR, GetHFData, GetTDData, Greg, HWxtest, HistData, HiveR, JacobiEigen, KSD, Kmisc, LDheatmap, LEAP, Lahman, MAc, MAd, MGLM, MSG, MultiBD, NNTbiomarker, NlsyLinks, OECD, PBImisc, PDQutils, PRROC, PSCBS, ParamHelpers, ProjectTemplate, R2admb, R6, RCMIP5, RDML, RFinfer, RcmdrPlugin.MA, Rdtq, ReporteRs, RndTexExams, SDEFSR, SDaA, SPOT, SamplerCompare, SimDesign, Sofi, SuperLearner, TeachingDemos, Thermimage, TimeProjection, Tmisc, UBL, UsingR, VSE, WHO, XLConnect, abctools, abd, ameco, archetypes, archivist, automap, bayesbio, bbmle, bcp, benchmarkme, benchmarkmeData, benchr, bife, binom, biogas, biogram, bodenmiller, bridgedist, broom, brotli, cate, cda, checkmate, choroplethrMaps, chron, clusterfly, clusternomics, codingMatrices, codyn, coloc, contoureR, countytimezones, crawl, csp, cvequality, cvxclustr, dams, data.table, deconvolveR, demi, dielectric, dimRed, directlabels, disclapmix, dlstats, doBy, dpcR, dplyr, earthtones, ecb, ecoengine, edfReader, eemR, emuR, etl, etm, eurostat, evaluate, eyelinker, fermicatsR, fiftystater, fitbitScraper, fitdistrplus, fivethirtyeight, flowr, forcats, fractional, freqweights, frontiles, funrar, fuzzyjoin, gapminder, gcookbook, gender, geoknife, githubinstall, googlesheets, grattan, gridDebug, gridExtra, groupdata2, growthcurver, gutenbergr, h2o, hazus, hdr, heuristica, highcharter, historydata, httk, icarus, icd9, ie2miscdata, imager, installr, kamila, kfigr, knitrBootstrap, latex2exp, lda, lme4, logitnorm, longCatEDA, ltbayes, macleish, maddison, magick, marked, matrixStats, medicalrisk, medicare, metricsgraphics, microplot, mistat, mixpack, mkin, mmpf, modelr, moonBook, mosaicData, munsell, musica, mvtboost, mwaved, nLTT, natserv, neurobase, nimble, nzelect, oapackage, observer, packcircles, padr, pagenum, palettetown, pals, pander, parsemsf, peptider, photobiologyInOut, photobiologyLEDs, photobiologyLamps, photobiologyPlants, physiology, playwith, plspm, pollstR, pomp, popEpi, popReconstruct, predatory, preprocomb, profr, profvis, psd, pseval, pwr, pxweb, qualvar, queuecomputer, rPref, ragtop, raincpc, rangemodelR, rasterVis, rattle, raw, rbefdata, rclimateca, rclinicaltrials, rdpla, rem, replyr, reval, rex, rfordummies, rivr, rmetasim, rnpn, robustbase, rollply, ropenaq, rpdo, rpf, rplexos, rsvd, rsvg, rtematres, rtf, rtide, rtimes, sadists, sand, scanstatistics, scdhlm, sdmvspecies, seewave, sensitivity, shiny, sigmoid, simTool, simcausal, simmer, simstudy, simulator, sitmo, sjstats, slim, sotkanet, spbabel, speaq2, srvyr, surveillance, taRifx, tableone, tabplot, testassay, tictactoe, tidyjson, tidytext, tigris, tikzDevice, timeit, tmap, tourr, tourrGui, toxboot, trapezoid, treecm, treescape, tufterhandout, ukgasapi, unvotes, usmap, vcdExtra, vcfR, vdiffr, vipor, viridisLite, visreg, vtreat, warbleR, wbstats, wesanderson, wikipediatrend, wordbankr, wrswoR, wrswoR.benchmark, xgboost, xtractomatic, zenplots, zoo, zoocat.

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See at CRAN