Multidimensional Scaling

Implements the following approaches for multidimensional scaling (MDS) based on stress minimization using majorization (smacof): ratio/interval/ordinal/spline MDS on symmetric dissimilarity matrices, MDS with external constraints on the configuration, individual differences scaling (idioscal, indscal), MDS with spherical restrictions, and ratio/interval/ordinal/spline unfolding (circular restrictions, row-conditional). Various tools and extensions like jackknife MDS, bootstrap MDS, permutation tests, MDS biplots, gravity models, unidimensional scaling, drift vectors (asymmetric MDS), classical scaling, and Procrustes are implemented as well.


Reference manual

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2.0-0 by Patrick Mair, 18 days ago

Browse source code at

Authors: Patrick Mair [aut, cre] , Jan De Leeuw [aut] , Patrick J. F. Groenen [aut] , Ingwer Borg [ctb]

Documentation:   PDF Manual  

Task views: Psychometric Models and Methods

GPL-3 license

Imports graphics, stats, polynom, Hmisc, colorspace, nnls, grDevices, MASS, weights, ellipse, wordcloud, candisc, parallel, foreach, doParallel

Depends on plotrix

Suggests knitr, prefmod, MPsychoR, calibrate

Imported by MDSMap, asymmetry, networktools.

Depended on by AnthropMMD, FreeSortR, mdsOpt.

Suggested by dyndimred, vegclust.

See at CRAN