Multidimensional Scaling

Implements the following approaches for multidimensional scaling (MDS) based on stress minimization using majorization (smacof): ratio/interval/ordinal/spline MDS on symmetric dissimilarity matrices, MDS with external constraints on the configuration, individual differences scaling (idioscal, indscal), MDS with spherical restrictions, and ratio/interval/ordinal/spline unfolding (circular restrictions, row-conditional). Various tools and extensions like jackknife MDS, bootstrap MDS, permutation tests, MDS biplots, gravity models, unidimensional scaling, drift vectors (asymmetric MDS), classical scaling, and Procrustes are implemented as well.


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Reference manual

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install.packages("smacof")

2.1-1 by Patrick Mair, 3 months ago


Browse source code at https://github.com/cran/smacof


Authors: Patrick Mair [aut, cre] , Jan De Leeuw [aut] , Patrick J. F. Groenen [aut] , Ingwer Borg [ctb]


Documentation:   PDF Manual  


Task views: Psychometric Models and Methods


GPL-3 license


Imports graphics, stats, polynom, Hmisc, nnls, grDevices, MASS, weights, ellipse, wordcloud, candisc, parallel, foreach, doParallel

Depends on plotrix, colorspace, e1071

Suggests knitr, prefmod, MPsychoR, calibrate, ggplot2, rmarkdown


Imported by AnthropMMD, MDSMap, asymmetry, networktools, thectar.

Depended on by FreeSortR, cops, mdsOpt.

Suggested by FCPS, dyndimred, vegclust.


See at CRAN