Analyzes Clickstreams Based on Markov Chains

A set of tools to read, analyze and write lists of click sequences on websites (i.e., clickstream). A click can be represented by a number, character or string. Clickstreams can be modeled as zero- (only computes occurrence probabilities), first- or higher-order Markov chains.


14-12-2017 Version 1.3.0 Fixed

  • Typo in method fitMarkovChain (thanks to KSTseng).
  • Problem to compute absorbing probabilities in method fitMarkovChain (thanks to Theo van Kraay).
  • Problem with special characters when fitting Markov chains. Improved
  • It is now possible to hide transitions with a low probability in a graph plot of a MarkovChain object. New
  • Methods for consensus clustering.
  • Method for performing a chi-square test.

18-05-2017 Version 1.2.1 New

  • Possibility to flip coordinates of heatmaps.
  • Method as.ClickClust transforms a list of clickstreams into a ClickClust-object.

10-04-2017 Version 1.2.0 Fixed

  • Bug in predicting the next click. Absorption probabilities were not correct. New
  • Method hmPlot for ploting heatmaps from transition probabilities or absorption probabilities.

14-10-2016 Version 1.1.9 New

  • Reference to JSS article

26-04-2016 Version 1.1.8 Fixed

  • Incorrect absorbing probabilities when predicting the next states of a given pattern and markov chain object when one of the next states is an absorbing state (thanks to Sebastian Lechner for reporting the bug).

21-03-2016 Version 1.1.7 Fixed

  • Compatibility problem with arules 1.4.0

08-01-2016 Version 1.1.6 Fixed

  • Citation file was using deprecated arguments.
  • Incorrect start probabilities.
  • Incorrect prediction of cluster assignment when clustering clickstreams with an order > 0.

07-07-2015 Version 1.1.5 Fixed

  • Compatibility problem with igraph 1.0.0 New
  • Possibility to estimate markov chains with linear programming (default).

17-05-2015 Version 1.1.4 Improved

  • Speed of several functions (thanks to Dennis Bohle [email protected] for contributing some ideas to improve the performance of the package) New
  • Method for converting a Clickstreams-object to a data frame consisting of session-specific state frequencies.
  • Method for converting a Clickstreams-object to an arules::transactions-object.

06-01-2015 Version 1.1.3 Fixed

  • NAs when reading large clickstream data.

15-07-2014 Version 1.1.2 Fixed

  • Deleted print-method for S4 classes. New
  • Added the possibility to define the number of digits in a Markov-chain-plot.

19-05-2014 Version 1.1.1 Fixed

  • Bug in function clusterClickstreams with orders higher than the smallest clickstream New
  • Improved summary of clickstream clusters.

27-03-2014 Version 1.1.0 Fixed

  • Wrong line breaks in readClickstreams.
  • Wrong direction in MarkovChain plots.
  • Wrong edge titles in MarkovChain plots. New
  • Function for clustering lists of clickstreams.
  • Functions for printing and summarizing clickstream clusters.
  • Function for writing a clickstream list to file.
  • Possibility to use absorbing probabilities for predicting next states.

Reference manual

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1.3.1 by Michael Scholz, 2 years ago

Browse source code at

Authors: Michael Scholz , Theo van Kraay

Documentation:   PDF Manual  

GPL-2 license

Imports plyr, Rsolnp, arules, linprog, ggplot2, ClickClust, parallel, data.table

Depends on methods, igraph, stats, utils, reshape2, MASS

See at CRAN