Aligned Rank Transform

The Aligned Rank Transform for nonparametric factorial ANOVAs as described by J. O. Wobbrock, L. Findlater, D. Gergle, & J. J. Higgins, "The Aligned Rank Transform for nonparametric factorial analyses using only ANOVA procedures", CHI 2011 .


ARTool 0.10.4

Minor changes:

  • Reference phia vignette using function call instead of non-canonical URL
  • Cautionary note about standardized effect sizes in effect size vignette
  • Added testInteractions example as alternative in contrasts vignette


  • Dependency fixes for failed test at testthat/test.artlm.R:35 (our use of lsmeans in that test requires some additional packages only declared as "suggests" in lsmeans, so now we "suggest" them as well).

ARTool 0.10.1

New features:

  • New vignette describing effect size estimates
  • Using lsmeans interactions argument instead of phia for interaction contrasts vignette


  • Require R >= 3.2 and lsmeans >= 2.22 to fix some bugs in earlier versions

ARTool 0.10.0

New features:

  • Support for Error() terms in model formulas (resulting models are run using aov())
  • Checks for numeric variables passed into formulas that may cause incorrect results (if the user intended data to be treated as categorical)
  • More detailed ANOVA tables
  • New vignette describing contrast tests, particularly for interactions (vignette("art-contrasts"))


  • Formulas now correctly support arbitrary expressions as terms (rather than just column names).

ARTool 0.9.5

Testing fix for changes in upcoming version of lsmeans: round lsmeans p value tests to 5 decimal places to accommodate changes to Tukey adjustment

ARTool 0.9.4

Minor changes to testing based on updated version of testthat (0.10.0):

  • More closely follow recommended testthat usage
  • Skip tests requiring lsmeans if it is not installed

Reference manual

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0.10.5 by Matthew Kay, 6 months ago

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Browse source code at

Authors: Matthew Kay [aut, cre] , Jacob O. Wobbrock [aut]

Documentation:   PDF Manual  

GPL (>= 2) license

Imports lme4, car, plyr, magrittr, dplyr

Suggests testthat, emmeans, knitr, rmarkdown, ggplot2, tidyr, pander, lmerTest, cluster, phia, survival, psych, stringi, DescTools

See at CRAN