Allows one to compute consonance (confidence) intervals for various statistical tests along with their corresponding P-values and S-values. The intervals can be plotted to create consonance and surprisal functions allowing one to see what effect sizes are compatible with the test model at various consonance levels rather than being limited to one interval estimate such as 95%. These methods are discussed by Poole C. (1987)

Interval estimates such as ~~confidence~~ **compatibility/consonance**
intervals are now widely reported in many journals alongside the exact
P-value of a statistical test and point estimate.

While this is a large improvement over what constituted statistical reporting in the past two decades, it is still largely inadequate.

Take for example, the 95% compatibility interval. As many have stated
before, there is nothing special about **95%**, yet we rarely see
intervals of any other level. Choosing to compute a 95% interval is as
mindless as choosing a 5% alpha level for hypothesis testing. A single
compatibility interval is only a *slice* of a wide range of
compatibility intervals at different levels. Reporting 95% intervals
only promotes cargo-cult
statistics
since there is not much thought behind the choice. (1)

rather than conscientious practice*.” - Stark & Saltelli, 2018

Thus, we propose that instead of only calculating * one* interval
estimate,

This can be accomplished using the
**concurve** package in R.

install.packages("concurve")

library(devtools)install_github("zadchow/concurve")

"

Statistical software enables and promotes cargo-cult statistics. Marketing and adoption of statistical software are driven by ease of use and the range of statistical routines the software implements. Offering complex and “modern” methods provides a competitive advantage. And some disciplines have in effect standardised on particular statistical software, often proprietary software.

Statistical software does not help you know what to compute, nor how to interpret the result. It does not offer to explain the assumptions behind methods, nor does it flag delicate or dubious assumptions. It does not warn you about multiplicity or p-hacking. It does not check whether you picked the hypothesis or analysis after looking at the data, nor track the number of analyses you tried before arriving at the one you sought to publish – another form of multiplicity. The more “powerful” and “user-friendly” the software is, the more it invites cargo-cult statistics." - Stark & Saltelli, 2018

- Stark PB, Saltelli A. Cargo-cult statistics and scientific crisis.
*Significance.*2018;15(4):40-43. - Poole C. Beyond the confidence interval.
*Am J Public Health.*1987;77(2):195-199. - Sullivan KM, Foster DA. Use of the confidence interval function.
*Epidemiology.*1990;1(1):39-42. - Rothman KJ, Greenland S, Lash TL. Modern epidemiology. 2012.
- Singh K, Xie M, Strawderman WE. Confidence distribution (CD) –
distribution estimator of a parameter.
*arXiv [mathST]*. 2007. - Schweder T, Hjort NL. Confidence and Likelihood*.
*Scand J Stat.*2002;29(2):309-332. - Amrhein V, Trafimow D, Greenland S. Inferential Statistics as
Descriptive Statistics: There is No Replication Crisis if We Don’t
Expect Replication.
*Am Stat*. 2018 - Greenland S. Valid P-values Behave Exactly As They Should. Some
misleading criticisms of P-values and their resolution with
S-values.
*Am Stat*. 2018;18(136).