Quantitative Analysis of Textual Data

A fast, flexible, and comprehensive framework for quantitative text analysis in R. Provides functionality for corpus management, creating and manipulating tokens and ngrams, exploring keywords in context, forming and manipulating sparse matrices of documents by features and feature co-occurrences, analyzing keywords, computing feature similarities and distances, applying content dictionaries, applying supervised and unsupervised machine learning, visually representing text and text analyses, and more.

quanteda: quantitative analysis of textualdata

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An R package for managing and analyzing text, created by Kenneth Benoit. Supported by the European Research Council grant ERC-2011-StG 283794-QUANTESS.

For more details, see https://quanteda.io.

How to Install

The normal way from CRAN, using your R GUI or


Or for the latest development version:

# devtools package required to install quanteda from Github 

Because this compiles some C++ and Fortran source code, you will need to have installed the appropriate compilers.

If you are using a Windows platform, this means you will need also to install the Rtools software available from CRAN.

If you are using macOS, you should install the macOS tools, namely the Clang 6.x compiler and the GNU Fortran compiler (as quanteda requires gfortran to build). If you are still getting errors related to gfortran, follow the fixes here.

How to Use

See the quick start guide to learn how to use quanteda.

How to cite

Benoit, Kenneth, Kohei Watanabe, Haiyan Wang, Paul Nulty, Adam Obeng, Stefan Müller, and Akitaka Matsuo. (2018) “quanteda: An R package for the quantitative analysis of textual data”. Journal of Open Source Software. 3(30), 774. https://doi.org/10.21105/joss.00774.

For a BibTeX entry, use the output from citation(package = "quanteda").

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If you like quanteda, please consider leaving feedback or a testimonial here.


Contributions in the form of feedback, comments, code, and bug reports are most welcome. How to contribute:


quanteda 1.4.1

Bug fixes and stability enhancements

  • Fixed an issue with special handling of whitespace variants that caused a test to fail when running Ubuntu 18.10 system with libicu-dev version 63.1 (#1604).
  • Fixed the operation of docvars<-.corpus() in a way that solves #1603 (reassignment of docvar names).

quanteda 1.4.0

Bug fixes and stability enhancements

  • Fixed bug in dfm_compress() and dfm_group() that changed or deleted docvars attributes of dfm objects (#1506).
  • Fixed a bug in textplot_xray() that caused incorrect facet labels when a pattern contained multiple list elements or values (#1514).
  • kwic() now correctly returns the pattern associated with each match as the "keywords" attribute, for all pattern types (#1515)
  • Implemented some improvements in efficiency and computation of unusual edge cases for textstat_simil() and textstat_dist().

New features

  • textstat_lexdiv() now works on tokens objects, not just dfm objects. New methods of lexical diversity now include MATTR (the Moving-Average Type-Token Ratio, Covington & McFall 2010) and MSTTR (Mean Segmental Type-Token Ratio).
  • New function tokens_split() allows splitting single into multiple tokens based on a pattern match. (#1500)
  • New function tokens_chunk() allows splitting tokens into new documents of equally-sized "chunks". (#1520)
  • New function textstat_entropy() now computes entropy for a dfm across feature or document margins.
  • The documentation for textstat_readability() is vastly improved, now providing detailing all formulas and providing full references.
  • New function dfm_match() allows a user to specify the features in a dfm according to a fixed vector of feature names, including those of another dfm. Replaces dfm_select(x, pattern) where pattern was a dfm.
  • A new argument vertex_labelsize added to textplot_network() to allow more precise control of label sizes, either globally or individually.

Behaviour changes

  • tokens.tokens(x, remove_hyphens = TRUE) where x was generated with remove_hyphens = FALSE now behaves similarly to how the same tokens would be handled had this option been called on character input as tokens.character(x, remove_hyphens = TRUE). (#1498)

quanteda 1.3.14

Bug fixes and stability enhancements

  • Improved the robustness of textstat_keyness() (#1482).
  • Improved the accuracy of sparsity reporting for the print method of a dfm (#1473).
  • Diagonals on a textstat_simil() return object coerced to matrix now default to 1.0, rather than 0.0 (#1494).

New Features

  • Added the following measures to textstat_lexdiv(): Yule's K, Simpson's D, and Herdan's Vm.

quanteda 1.3.13

Bug fixes and stability enhancements

  • Fixed a bug causing incorrect counting in fcm(x, ordered = TRUE). (#1413) Also set the condition that window can be of size 1 (formerly the limit was 2 or greater).
  • Fixed deprecation warnings from adding a dfm as docvars, and this now imports the feature names as docvar names automatically. (related to #1417)
  • Fixed behaviour from tokens(x, what = "fasterword", remove_separators = TRUE) so that it correctly splits words separated by \n and \t characters. (#1420)
  • Add error checking for functions taking dfm inputs in case a dfm has empty features (#1419).
  • For textstat_readability(), fixed a bug in Dale-Chall-based measures and in the Spache word list measure. These were caused by an incorrect lookup mechanism but also by limited implementation of the wordlists. The new wordlists include all of the variations called for in the original measures, but using fast fixed matching. (#1410)
  • Fixed problems with basic dfm operations (rowMeans(), rowSums(), colMeans(), colSums()) caused by not having access to the Matrix package methods. (#1428)
  • Fixed problem in textplot_scale1d() when input a predicted wordscores object with se.fit = TRUE (#1440).
  • Improved the stability of textplot_network(). (#1460)

New Features

  • Added new argument intermediate to textstat_readability(x, measure, intermediate = FALSE), which if TRUE returns intermediate quantities used in the computation of readability statistics. Useful for verification or direct use of the intermediate quantities.
  • Added a new separator argument to kwic() to allow a user to define which characters will be added between tokens returned from a keywords in context search. (#1449)
  • Reimplemented textstat_dist() and textstat_simil() in C++ for enhanced performance. (#1210)
  • Added a tokens_sample() function (#1478).

Behaviour changes

  • Removed the Hamming distance method from textstat_dist() (#1443), based on the reasoning in #1442.
  • Removed the "chisquared" and "chisquared2" distance measures from textstat_simil(). (#1442)

quanteda 1.3.4

Bug fixes and stability enhancements

  • Keep encodings of types when a tokens object is recompiled. (#1387)
  • More robust handling in predict.textmodel_worscores() when training and test feature sets are difference (#1380).
  • char_segment() and corpus_segment() are more robust to whitespace characters preceding a pattern (#1394).
  • tokens_ngrams() is more robust to handling large numbers of documents (#1395).
  • corpus.data.frame() is now robust to handling data.frame inputs with improper or missing variable names (#1388).

New Features

  • Added as.igraph.fcm() method for converting an fcm object into an igraph graph object.
  • Added a case_insensitive argument to char_segment() and corpus_segment().

quanteda 1.3.0

New Features

  • Added to = "tripletlist" output type for convert(), to convert a dfm into a simple triplet list. (#1321)
  • Added tokens_tortl() and char_tortl() to add markers for right-to-left language tokens and character objects. (#1322)

Behaviour changes

  • Improved corpus.kwic() by adding new arguments split_context and extract_keyword.
  • dfm_remove(x, selection = anydfm) is now equivalent to dfm_remove(x, selection = featnames(anydfm)). (#1320)
  • Improved consistency of predict.textmodel_nb() returns, and added type = argument. (#1329)

Bug fixes

  • Fixed a bug in textmodel_affinity() that caused failure when the input dfm had been compiled with tolower = FALSE. (#1338)
  • Fixed a bug affecting tokens_lookup() and dfm_lookup() when nomatch is used. (#1347)
  • Fixed a problem whereby NA texts created a "document" (or tokens) containing "NA" (#1372)

quanteda 1.2.0

New Features

  • Added an nsentence() method for spacyr parsed objects. (#1289)

Bug fixes and stability enhancements

  • Fix bug in nsyllable() that incorrectly handled cased words, and returned wrong names with use.names = TRUE. (#1282)
  • Fix the overwriting of summary.character() caused by previous import of the network package namespace. (#1285)
  • dfm_smooth() now correctly sets the smooth value in the dfm (#1274). Arithmetic operations on dfm objects are now much more consistent and do not drop attributes of the dfm, as sometimes happened with earlier versions.

Behaviour changes

  • tokens_toupper() and tokens_tolower() no longer remove unused token types. Solves #1278.
  • dfm_trim() now takes more options, and these are implemented more consistently. min_termfreq and max_termfreq have replaced min_count and max_count, and these can be modified using a termfreq_type argument. (Similar options are implemented for docfreq_type.) Solves #1253, #1254.
  • textstat_simil() and textstat_dist() now take valid dfm indexes for the relevant margin for the selection argument. Previously, this could also be a direct vector or matrix for comparison, but this is no longer allowed. Solves #1266.
  • Improved performance for dfm_group() (#1295).

quanteda 1.1.1

New Features

  • Added as.dfm() methods for tm DocumentTermMatrix and TermDocumentMatrix objects. (#1222)
  • predict.textmodel_wordscores() now includes an include_reftexts argument to exclude training texts from the predicted model object (#1229). The default behaviour is include_reftexts = TRUE, producing the same behaviour as existed before the introduction of this argument. This allows rescaling based on the reference documents (since rescaling requires prediction on the reference documents) but provides an easy way to exclude the reference documents from the predicted quantities.
  • textplot_wordcloud() now uses code entirely internal to quanteda, instead of using the wordcloud package.

Bug fixes and stability enhancements

  • Fixed a problem in the examples for textplot_scale1d() by adjusting the refscores for data_corpus_irishbudget2010.
  • Eliminated unnecessary dependency on the digest package.
  • Updated the vignette title to be less generic.
  • Improved the robustness of dfm_trim() and dfm_weight() for previously weighted dfm objects and when supplied thresholds are proportions instead of counts. (#1237)
  • Fixed a problem in summary.corpus(x, n = 101) when ndoc(x) > 100 (#1242).
  • Fixed a problem in predict.textmodel_wordscores(x, rescaling = "mv") that always reset the reference values for rescaling to the first and second documents (#1251).
  • Issues in the color generation and labels for textplot_keyness() are now resolved (#1233, #1233).

Performance improvements

  • textmodel methods are now exported, to facilitate extension packages for other textmodel methods (e.g. wordshoal).

Behaviour changes

  • Changed the default in textmodel_wordfish() to sparse = FALSE, in response to #1216.
  • dfm_group() now preserves docvars that are constant for the group aggregation (#1228).
  • The default threads is now 2, to comply with CRAN policies. (The user can increase this via quanteda_options(threads = ...).

quanteda 1.0.0

New Features

  • Added vertex_labelfont to textplot_network().
  • Added textmodel_lsa() for Latent Semantic Analysis models.
  • Added textmodel_affinity() for the Perry and Benoit (2017) class affinity scaling model.
  • Added Chinese stopwords.
  • Added a pkgdown vignette for applications in the Chinese language.
  • Added textplot_network() function.
  • The stopwords() function and the associated internal data object data_char_stopwords have been removed from quanteda, and replaced by equivalent functionality in the stopwords package.
  • Added tokens_subset(), now consistent with other *_subset() functions (#1149).

Bug fixes and stability enhancements

  • Performance has been improved for fcm() and for textmodel_wordfish().
  • dfm() now correctly passes through all ... arguments to tokens(). (#1121)
  • All dfm_*() functions now work correctly with empty dfm objects. (#1133)
  • Fixed a bug in dfm_weight() for named weight vectors (#1150)
  • Fixed a bug preventing textplot_influence() from working (#1116).

Behaviour Changes

  • The convenience wrappers to convert() are simplified and no longer exported. To convert a dfm, convert() is now the only official function.
  • nfeat() replaces nfeature(), which is now deprecated. (#1134)
  • textmodel_wordshoal() has been removed, and relocated to a new package (wordshoal).
  • The generic wrapper function textmodel(), which used to be a gateway to specific textmodel_*() functions, has been removed.
  • (Most of) the textmodel_*() have been reimplemented to make their behaviour consistent with the lm/glm() families of models, including especially how the predict, summary, and coef methods work (#1007, #108).
  • The GitHub home for the repository has been moved to https://github.com/quanteda/quanteda.

quanteda 0.99.12

New Features

  • tokens_segment() has a new window argument, permitting selection within an asymmetric window around the pattern of selection. (#521)
  • tokens_replace() now allows token types to be substituted directly and quickly.
  • textmodel_affinity() now adds functionality to fit the Perry and Benoit (2017) class affinity model.
  • Added a spacy_parse method for corpus objects. Also restored quanteda methods for spacyr spacy_parsed objects.

Bug fixes and stability enhancements

  • Improved documentation for textmodel_nb() (#1010), and made output quantities from the fitted NB model regular matrix objects instead of Matrix classes.

Behaviour Changes

  • All of the deprecated functions are now removed. (#991)
  • tokens_group() is now significantly faster.
  • The deprecated "list of characters" tokenize() function and all methods associated with the tokenizedTexts object types have been removed.
  • Added convenience functions for keeping tokens or features: tokens_keep(), dfm_keep(), and fcm_keep(). (#1037)
  • textmodel_NB() has been replaced by textmodel_nb().

quanteda 0.99.9

New Features

  • Added methods for changing the docnames of tokens and dfm objects (#987).
  • Added new function textmodel_lsa() for Latent Semantic Analysis.

Bug fixes and stability enhancements

  • The computation of tfidf has been more thoroughly described in the documentation for this function (#997).
  • Fixed a bug discovered in #1011 for unused keys in tokens_lookup(..., exclusive = FALSE).

quanteda 0.99

New Features

  • Added tokens_segment(), which works on tokens objects in the same way as corpus_segment() does on corpus objects (#902).
  • Added magrittr pipe support (#927). %>% can now be used with quanteda without needing to attach magrittr (or, as many users apparently believe, the entire tidyverse.)
  • corpus_segment() now behaves more logically and flexibly, and is clearly differentiated from corpus_reshape() in terms of its functionality. Its documentation is also vastly improved. (#908)
  • Added data_dictionary_LSD2015, the Lexicoder Sentiment 2015 dictionary (#963).
  • Significant improvements to the performance of tokens_lookup() and dfm_lookup() (#960).
  • New functions head.corpus(), tail.corpus() provide fast subsetting of the first or last documents in a corpus. (#952)

Bug fixes and stability enhancements

  • Fixed a problem when applying purrr::map() to dfm() (#928).
  • Added documentation for regex2fixed() and associated functions.
  • Fixed a bug in textstat_collocations.tokens() caused by "documents" containing only "" as tokens. (#940)
  • Fixed a bug caused by cbind.dfm() when features shared a name starting with quanteda_options("base_featname") (#946)
  • Improved dictionary handling and creation now correctly handles nested LIWC 2015 categories. (#941)
  • Number of threads now set correctly by quanteda_options(). (#966)

Behaviour changes

  • summary.corpus() now generates a special data.frame, which has its own print method, rather than requiring verbose = FALSE to suppress output (#926).
  • textstat_collocations() is now multi-threaded.
  • head.dfm(), tail.dfm() now behave consistently with base R methods for matrix, with the added argument nfeature. Previously, these methods printed the subset and invisibly returned it. Now, they simply return the subset. (#952)
  • Dictionary keys are now unique, and if multiple, identical keys are defined for a dictionary when constructed, the values will be merged into the consolidated key. (#959)

quanteda 0.9.9-65

New features

  • Improvements and consolidation of methods for detecting multi-word expressions, now active only through textstat_collocations(), which computes only the lambda method for now, but does so accurately and efficiently. (#753, #803). This function is still under development and likely to change further.
  • Added new quanteda_options that affect the maximum documents and features displayed by the dfm print method (#756).
  • ngram formation is now significantly faster, including with skips (skipgrams).
  • Improvements to topfeatures():
    • now accepts a groups argument that can be used to generate lists of top (or bottom) features in a group of texts, including by document (#336).
    • new argument scheme that takes the default of (frequency) "count" but also a new "docfreq" value (#408).
  • New wrapper phrase() converts whitespace-separated multi-word patterns into a list of patterns. This affects the feature/pattern matching in tokens/dfm_select/remove, tokens_compound, tokens/dfm_lookup, and kwic. phrase() and the associated changes also make the behaviour of using character vectors, lists of characters, dictionaries, and collocation objects for pattern matches far more consistent. (See #820, #787, #740, #837, #836, #838)
  • corpus.Corpus() for creating a corpus from a tm Corpus now works with more complex objects that include document-level variables, such as data from the manifestoR package (#849).
  • New plot function textplot_keyness() plots term "keyness", the association of words with contrasting classes as measured by textstat_keyness().
  • Added corpus constructor for corpus objects (#690).
  • Added dictionary constructor for dictionary objects (#690).
  • Added a tokens constructor for tokens objects (#690), including updates to tokens() that improve the consistency and efficiency of the tokenization.
  • Added new quanteda_options(): language_stemmer and language_stopwords, now used for default in *_wordstem functions and stopwords() for defaults, respectively. Also uses this option in dfm() when stem = TRUE, rather than hard-wiring in the "english" stemmer (#386).
  • Added a new function textstat_frequency() to compile feature frequencies, possibly by groups. (#825)
  • Added nomatch option to tokens_lookup() and dfm_lookup(), to provide tokens or feature counts for categories not matched to any dictionary key. (#496)

Behaviour changes

  • The functions sequences() and collocations() have been removed and replaced by textstat_collocations().
  • (Finally) we added "will" to the list of English stopwords (#818).
  • dfm objects with one or both dimensions having zero length, and empty kwic objects now display more appropriately in their print methods (per #811).
  • Pattern matches are now implemented more consistently across functions. In functions such as *_select, *_remove, tokens_compound, features has been replaced by pattern, and in kwic, keywords has been replaced by pattern. These all behave consistently with respect to pattern, which now has a unified single help page and parameter description.(#839) See also above new features related to phrase().
  • We have improved the performance of the C++ routines that handle many of the tokens_* functions using hashed tokens, making some of them 10x faster (#853).
  • Upgrades to the dfm_group() function now allow "empty" documents to be created using the fill = TRUE option, for making documents conform to a selection (similar to how dfm_select() works for features, when supplied a dfm as the pattern argument). The groups argument now behaves consistently across the functions where it is used. (#854)
  • dictionary() now requires its main argument to be a list, not a series of elements that can be used to build a list.
  • Some changes to the behaviour of tokens() have improved the behaviour of remove_hyphens = FALSE, which now behaves more correctly regardless of the setting of remove_punct (#887).
  • Improved cbind.dfm() function allows cbinding vectors, matrixes, and (recyclable) scalars to dfm objects.

Bug fixes and stability enhancements

  • For the underlying methods behind textstat_collocations(), we corrected the word matching, and lambda and z calculation methods, which were slightly incorrect before. We also removed the chi2, G2, and pmi statistics, because these were incorrectly calculated for size > 2.
  • LIWC-formatted dictionary import now robust to assignment to term assignment to missing categories.
  • textmodel_NB(x, y, distribution = "Bernoulli") was previously inactive even when this option was set. It has now been fully implemented and tested (#776, #780).
  • Separators including rare spacing characters are now handled more robustly by the remove_separators argument in tokens(). See #796.
  • Improved memory usage when computing ntoken() and ntype(). (#795)
  • Improvements to quanteda_options() now does not throw an error when quanteda functions are called directly without attaching the package. In addition, quanteda options can be set now in .Rprofile and will not be overwritten when the options initialization takes place when attaching the package.
  • Fixed a bug in textstat_readability() that wrongly computed the number of words with fewer than 3 syllables in a text; this affected the FOG.NRI and the Linsear.Write measures only.
  • Fixed mistakes in the computation of two docfreq schemes: "logave" and "inverseprob".
  • Fixed a bug in the handling of multi-thread options where the settings using quanteda_options() did not actually set the number of threads. In addition, we fixed a bug causing threading to be turned off on macOS (due to a check for a gcc version that is not used for compiling the macOS binaries) prevented multi-threading from being used at all on that platform.
  • Fixed a bug causing failure when functions that use quanteda_options() are called without the namespace or package being attached or loaded (#864).
  • Fixed a bug in overloading the View method that caused all named objects in the RStudio/Source pane to be named "x". (#893)

quanteda 0.9.9-50

New features

  • Corpus construction using corpus() now works for a tm::SimpleCorpus object. (#680)
  • Added corpus_trim() and char_trim() functions for selecting documents or subsets of documents based on sentence, paragraph, or document lengths.
  • Conversion of a dfm to an stm object now passes docvars through in the $meta of the return object.
  • New dfm_group(x, groups = ) command, a convenience wrapper around dfm.dfm(x, groups = ) (#725).
  • Methods for extending quanteda functions to readtext objects updated to match CRAN release of readtext package.
  • Corpus constructor methods for data.frame objects now conform to the "text interchange format" for corpus data.frames, automatically recognizing doc_id and text fields, which also provides interoperability with the readtext package. corpus construction methods are now more explicitly tailored to input object classes.

Bug fixes and stability enhancements

  • dfm_lookup() behaves more robustly on different platforms, especially for keys whose values match no features (#704).
  • textstat_simil() and textstat_dist() no longer take the n argument, as this was not sorting features in correct order.
  • Fixed failure of tokens(x, what = "character") when x included Twitter characters @ and # (#637).
  • Fixed bug #707 where ntype.dfm() produced an incorrect result.
  • Fixed bug #706 where textstat_readability() and textstat_lexdiv() for single-document returns when drop = TRUE.
  • Improved the robustness of corpus_reshape().
  • print, and head, and tail methods for dfm are more robust (#684).
  • Fixed bug in convert(x, to = "stm") caused by zero-count documents and zero-count features in a dfm (#699, #700, #701). This also removes docvar rows from $meta when this is passed through the dfm, for zero-count documents.
  • Corrected broken handling of nested Yoshikoder dictionaries in dictionary(). (#722)
  • dfm_compress now preserves a dfm's docvars if collapsing only on the features margin, which means that dfm_tolower() and dfm_toupper() no longer remove the docvars.
  • fcm_compress() now retains the fcm class, and generates and error when an asymmetric compression is attempted (#728).
  • textstat_collocations() now returns the collocations as character, not as a factor (#736)
  • Fixed a bug in dfm_lookup(x, exclusive = FALSE) wherein an empty dfm ws returned with there was no no match (#116).
  • Argument passing through dfm() to tokens() is now robust, and preserves variables defined in the calling environment (#721).
  • Fixed issues related to dictionaries failing when applying str(), names(), or other indexing operations, which started happening on Linux and Windows platforms following the CRAN move to 3.4.0. (#744)
  • Dictionary import using the LIWC format is more robust to improperly formatted input files (#685).
  • Weights applied using dfm_weight() now print friendlier error messages when the weight vector contains features not found in the dfm. See this Stack Overflow question for the use case that sparked this improvement.

quanteda 0.9.9-24

New features

  • corpus_reshape() can now go from sentences and paragraph units back to documents.
  • Added a by = argument to corpus_sample(), for use in bootstrap resampling of sub-document units.
  • Added an experimental method bootstrap_dfm() to generate a list of dimensionally-equivalent dfm objects based on sentence-level resampling of the original documents.
  • Added option to tokens() and dfm() for passing docvars through to to tokens and dfm objects, and added docvars() and metadoc() methods for tokens and dfm class objects. Overall, the code for docvars and metadoc is now more robust and consistent.
  • docvars() on eligible objects that contain no docvars now returns an empty 0 x 0 data.frame (in the spirit of #242).
  • Redesigned textmodel_scale1d now produces sorted and grouped document positions for fitted wordfish models, and produces a ggplot2 plot object.
  • textmodel_wordfish() now preserves sparsity while processing the dfm, and uses a fast approximation to an SVD to get starting values. This also dramatically improves performance in computing this model. (#482, #124)
  • The speed of kwic() is now dramatically improved, and also returns an indexed set of tokens that makes subsequent commands on a kwic class object much faster. (#603)
  • Package options (for verbose, threads) can now be set or queried using quanteda_options().
  • Improved performance and better documentation for corpus_segment(). (#634)
  • Added functions corpus_trimsentences() and char_trimsentences() to remove sentences from a corpus or character object, based on token length or pattern matching.
  • Added options to textstat_readability(): min_sentence_length and max_sentence_length. (#632)
  • Indexing now works for dictionaries, for slicing out keys and values ([), or accessing values directly ([[). (#651)
  • Began the consolidation of collocation detection and scoring into a new function textstat_collocations(), which combines the existing collocations() and sequences() functions. (#434) Collocations now behave as sequences for other functions (such as tokens_compound()) and have a greatly improved performance for such uses.

Behaviour changes

  • docvars() now permits direct access to "metadoc" fields (starting with _, e.g. _document)
  • metadoc() now returns a vector instead of a data.frame for a single variable, similar to docvars()
  • Most verbose options now take the default from getOption("verbose") rather than fixing the value in the function signatures. (#577)
  • textstat_dist() and textstat_simil() now return a matrix if a selection argument is supplied, and coercion to a list produces a list of distances or similarities only for that selection.
  • All remaining camelCase arguments are gone. For commonly used ones, such as those in tokens(), the old arguments (e.g. removePunct) still produce the same behaviour but with a deprecation warning.
  • Added n_target and n_reference columns to textstat_keyness() to return counts for each category being compared for keyness.

Bug fixes

  • Fixed an problem in tokens generation for some irregular characters (#554).
  • Fixed a problem in setting the parallel thread size on single-core machines (#556).
  • Fixed problems for str() on a corpus with no docvars (#571).
  • removeURL in tokens() now removes URLs where the first part of the URL is a single letter (#587).
  • dfm_select now works correctly for ngram features (#589).
  • Fixed a bug crashing corpus constructors for character vectors with duplicated names (the cause of #580).
  • Fixed a bug in the behaviour for dfm_select(x, features) when features was a dfm, that failed to produce the intended featnames matches for the output dfm.
  • Fixed a bug in corpus_segment(x, what = "tags") when a document contained a whitespace just before a tag, at the beginning of the file, or ended with a tag followed by no text (#618, #634).
  • Fixed some problems with dictionary construction and reading some dictionary formats (#454, #455, #459).

quanteda 0.9.9-17

New features

  • textstat_keyness() now returns a data.frame with p-values as well as the test statistic, and rownames containing the feature. This is more consistent with the other textstat functions.
  • tokens_lookup() implements new rules for nested and linked sequences in dictionary values. See #502.
  • tokens_compound() has a new join argument for better handling of nested and linked sequences. See #517.
  • Internal operations on tokens are now significantly faster due to a reimplementation of the hash table functions in C++. (#510)
  • dfm() now works with multi-word dictionaries and thesauruses, which previously worked only with tokens_lookup().
  • fcm() is now parallelized for improved performance on multi-core systems.

Bug fixes

  • Fixed C++ incompatibilities on older platforms due to compiler incompatibilities with the required TBB libraries (for multi-threading) (#531, #532, #535), in addition to safeguarding against other compiler warnings across a variety of new tested undefined behaviours.
  • Fixed a bug in convert(x, to = "lsa") that transposed row and column names (#526)
  • Added missing fcm() method for corpus objects (#538)
  • Fixed some minor issues with reading in Lexicoder format dictionaries (Improvements to Lexicoder dictionary handling

quanteda 0.9.9-3

Bug fixes

  • Fixed a bug causing dfm and tokens to break on > 10,000 documents. (#438)
  • Fixed a bug in tokens(x, what = "character", removeSeparators = TRUE) that returned an empty string.
  • Fixed a bug in corpus.VCorpus if the VCorpus contains a single document. (#445)
  • Fixed a bug in dfm_compress in which the function failed on documents that contained zero feature counts. (#467)
  • Fixed a bug in textmodel_NB that caused the class priors Pc to be refactored alphabetically instead of in the order of assignment (#471), also affecting predicted classes (#476).

New features

  • New textstat function textstat_keyness() discovers words that occur at differential rates between partitions of a dfm (using chi-squared, Fisher's exact test, and the G^2 likelihood ratio test to measure the strength of associations).
  • Added 2017-Trump to the inaugural corpus datasets (data_corpus_inaugual and data_char_inaugural).
  • Improved the groups argument in texts() (and in dfm() that uses this function), which will now coerce to a factor rather than requiring one.
  • Added a dfm constructor from dfm objects, with the option of collapsing by groups.
  • Added new arguments to sequences(): ordered and max_length, the latter to prevent memory leaks from extremely long sequences.
  • dictionary() now accepts YAML as an input file format.
  • dfm_lookup and tokens_lookup now accept a levels argument to determine which level of a hierarchical dictionary should be applied.
  • Added min_nchar and max_nchar arguments to dfm_select.
  • dictionary() can now be called on the argument of a list() without explicitly wrapping it in list().
  • fcm now works directly on a dfm object when context = "documents".

This release has some major changes to the API, described below.

Data objects

Renamed data objects

new name original name notes
data_char_sampletext exampleString
data_char_mobydick mobydickText
data_dfm_LBGexample LBGexample
data_char_sampletext exampleString

Renamed internal data objects

The following objects have been renamed, but will not affect user-level functionality because they are primarily internal. Their man pages have been moved to a common ?data-internal man page, hidden from the index, but linked from some of the functions that use them.

new name original name notes
data_int_syllables englishSyllables (used by textcount_syllables())
data_char_wordlists wordlists (used by readability())
data_char_stopwords .stopwords (used by stopwords()

Deprecated data objects

In v.0.9.9 the old names remain available, but are deprecated.

new name original name notes
data_char_ukimmig2010 ukimmigTexts
data_corpus_irishbudget2010 ie2010Corpus
data_char_inaugural inaugTexts
data_corpus_inaugural inaugCorpus

Deprecated functions

The following functions will still work, but issue a deprecation warning:

new function deprecated function constructs:
tokens tokenize() tokens class object
corpus_subset subset.corpus corpus class object
corpus_reshape changeunits corpus class object
corpus_sample sample corpus class object
corpus_segment segment corpus class object
dfm_compress compress dfm class object
dfm_lookup applyDictionary dfm class object
dfm_remove removeFeatures.dfm dfm class object
dfm_sample sample.dfm dfm class object
dfm_select selectFeatures.dfm dfm class object
dfm_smooth smoother dfm class object
dfm_sort sort.dfm dfm class object
dfm_trim trim.dfm dfm class object
dfm_weight weight dfm class object
textplot_wordcloud plot.dfm (plot)
textplot_xray plot.kwic (plot)
textstat_readability readability data.frame
textstat_lexdiv lexdiv data.frame
textstat_simil similarity dist
textstat_dist similarity dist
featnames features character
nsyllable syllables (named) integer
nscrabble scrabble (named) integer
tokens_ngrams ngrams tokens class object
tokens_skipgrams skipgrams tokens class object
tokens_toupper toUpper.tokens, toUpper.tokenizedTexts tokens, tokenizedTexts
tokens_tolower toLower.tokens, toLower.tokenizedTexts tokens, tokenizedTexts
char_toupper toUpper.character, toUpper.character character
char_tolower toLower.character, toLower.character character
tokens_compound joinTokens, phrasetotoken tokens class object

New functions

The following are new to v0.9.9 (and not associated with deprecated functions):

new function description output class
fcm() constructor for a feature co-occurrence matrix fcm
fcm_select selects features from an fcm fcm
fcm_remove removes features from an fcm fcm
fcm_sort sorts an fcm in alphabetical order of its features fcm
fcm_compress compacts an fcm fcm
fcm_tolower lowercases the features of an fcm and compacts fcm
fcm_toupper uppercases the features of an fcm and compacts fcm
dfm_tolower lowercases the features of a dfm and compacts dfm
dfm_toupper uppercases the features of a dfm and compacts dfm
sequences experimental collocation detection sequences

Deleted functions and data objects

new name reason
encodedTextFiles.zip moved to the readtext package
describeTexts deprecated several versions ago for summary.character
textfile moved to package readtext
encodedTexts moved to package readtext, as data_char_encodedtexts
findSequences replaced by sequences

Other new features

  • to = "lsa" functionality added to convert() (#414)
  • Much faster pattern matching in general, through an overhaul of how valuetype matches work for many functions.
  • Added experimental View methods for kwic objects, based on Javascript Datatables.
  • kwic is completely rewritten, now uses fast hashed index matching in C++ and fully implements vectorized matches (#306) and all valuetypes (#307).
  • tokens_lookup, tokens_select, and tokens_remove are faster and use parallelization (based on the TBB library).
  • textstat_dist and textstat_simil add fast, sparse, and parallel computation of many new distance and similarity matrices.
  • Added textmodel_wordshoal fitting function.
  • Add max_docfreq and min_docfreq arguments, and better verbose output, to dfm_trim (#383).
  • Added support for batch hashing of tokens through tokens(), for more memory-efficient token hashing when dealing with very large numbers of documents.
  • Added support for in-memory compressed corpus objects.
  • Consolidated corpus-level metadata arguments in corpus() through the metacorpus list argument.
  • Added Greek stopwords. (See #282).
  • Added index handling [, [[, and $ for (hashed) tokens objects.
  • Now using ggplot2.
  • Added tokens methods for collocations() and kwic().
  • Much improved performance for tokens_select() (formerly selectFeatures.tokens()).
  • Improved ngrams() and joinTokens() performance for hashed tokens class objects.
  • Improved dfm.character() by using new tokens() constructor to create hashed tokenized texts by default when creating a dfm, resulting in performance gains when constructing a dfm. Creating a dfm from a hashed tokens object is now 4-5 times faster than the older tokenizedTexts object.
  • Added new (hashed) tokens class object.
  • Added plot method for fitted textmodel_wordscores objects.
  • Added fast tokens_lookup() method (formerly applyDictionary()), that also works with dictionaries that have multi-word keys. Addresses but does not entirely yet solve #188.
  • Added sparsity() function to compute the sparsity of a dfm.
  • Added feature co-occurrence matrix functions (fcm).

quanteda 0.9.8

New Features

  • Improved the performance of selectFeatures.tokenizedTexts().
  • Improved the performance of rbind.dfm().
  • Added support for different docvars when importing multiple files using textfile(). (#147)
  • Added support for comparison dispersion plots in plot.kwic(). (#146)
  • Added a corpus constructor method for kwic objects.
  • Substantially improved the performance of convert(x, to = "stm") for dfm export, including adding an argument for meta-data (docvars, in quanteda parlance). (#209)
  • Internal rewrite of textfile(), now supports more file types, more wildcard patterns, and is far more robust generally.
  • Add support for loading external dictionary formats:
  • Yoshikoder,
  • Lexicoder v2 and v3 (#228)
  • Autodetect dictionary file format from file extension, so no longer require format keyword for loading dictionaries (#227)
  • Improved compatibility with rOpenSci guidelines (#218):
    • Use httr to get remote files
    • Use messages() to display messages rather than print or cat
    • Reorganise sections in README file
  • Added new punctuation argument to collocations() to provide new options for handling collocations separated by punctuation characters (#220).

Bug fixes

  • ( Solved #267 in which fcm(x, tri = TRUE) temporarily created a dense logical matrix.
  • ( Added feature co-occurrence matrix functions (fcm).
  • ( Fixed an incompatibility in sequences.cpp with Solaris x86 (#257)
  • ( Fix bug in verbose output of dfm that causes misreporting of number of features (#250)
  • ( Fix a bug in selectFeatures.dfm() that ignored case_insensitive = TRUE settings (#251) correct the documentation for this function.
  • ( Fix a bug in tf(x, scheme = "propmax") that returned a wrong computation; correct the documentation for this function.
  • ( Fixed a bug in textfile() causing all texts to have the same name, for types using the "textField" argument (a single file containing multiple documents).
  • Fixed bug in phrasetotoken() where if pattern included a + for valuetype = c("glob", "fixed") it threw a regex error. #239
  • Fixed bug in textfile() where source is a remote .zip set. (#172)
  • Fixed bug in wordstem.dfm() that caused an error if supplied a dfm with a feature whose total frequency count was zero, or with a feature whose total docfreq was zero. Fixes #181.
  • Fix #214 "mysterious stemmed token" bug in wordstem.dfm(), introduced in fixing #181.
  • Fixed previously non-functional toLower = argument in dfm.tokenizedTexts().
  • Fixed some errors in the computation of a few readability formulas (#215).
  • Added filenames names to text vectors returned by textfile (#221).
  • dictionary() now works correctly when reading LIWC dictionaries where all terms belong to one key (#229).
  • `convert(x, to = "stm") now indexes the dfm components from 1, not 0 (#222).
  • Remove temporary stemmed token (#214).
  • Fixed bug in textmodel_NB() for non-"uniform" priors (#241)


  • Added warn = FALSE to the readLines() calls in textfile(), so that no warnings are issued when files are read that are missing a final EOL or that contain embedded nuls.
  • trim() now prints an output message even when no features are removed (#223)
  • We now skip some platform-dependent tests on CRAN, travis-ci and Windows.

quanteda 0.9.6

  • Improved Naive Bayes model and prediction, textmodel(x, y, method = "NB"), now works correctly on k > 2.

  • Improved tag handling for segment(x, what = "tags")

  • Added valuetype argument to segment() methods, which allows faster and more robust segmentation on large texts.

  • corpus() now converts all hyphen-like characters to simple hyphen

  • segment.corpus() now preserves all existing docvars.

  • corpus documentation now removes the description of the corpus object's structure since too many users were accessing these internal elements directly, which is strongly discouraged, as we are likely to change the corpus internals (soon and often). Repeat after me: "encapsulation".

  • Improve robustness of corpus.VCorpus() for constructing a corpus from a tm Corpus object.

  • Add UTF-8 preservation to ngrams.cpp.

  • Fix encoding issues for textfile(), improve functionality.

  • Added two data objects: Moby Dick is now available as mobydickText, without needing to access a zipped text file; encodedTextFiles.zip is now a zipped archive of different encodings of (mainly) the UN Declaration of Human Rights, for testing conversions from 8-bit encodings in different (non-Roman) languages.

  • phrasetotoken() now has a method correctly defined for corpus class objects.

  • lexdiv() now works just like readability(), and is faster (based on data.table) and the code is simpler.

  • removed quanteda::df() as a synonym for docfreq(), as this conflicted with stats::df().

  • added version information when package is attached.

  • improved rbind() and cbind() methods for dfm. Both now take any length sequence of dfms and perform better type checking.
    rbind.dfm() also knits together dfms with different features, which can be useful for information and retrieval purposes or machine learning.

  • selectFeatures(x, anyDfm) (where the second argument is a dfm) now works with a selection = "remove" option.

  • tokenize.character adds a removeURL option.

  • added a corpus method for data.frame objects, so that a corpus can be constructed directly from a data.frame. Requires the addition of a textField argument (similar to textfile).

  • added compress.dfm() to combine identically named columns or rows. #123

  • Much better phrasetotoken(), with additional methods for all combinations of corpus/character v. dictionary/character/collocations.

  • Added aweight(x, type, ...) signature where the second argument can be a named numeric vector of weights, not just a label for a type of weight. Thanks http://stackoverflow.com/questions/36815926/assigning-weights-to-different-features-in-r/36823475#36823475.

  • as.data.frame for dfms now passes ... to as.data.frame.matrix.

  • Fixed bug in predict.fitted_textmodel_NB() that caused a failure with k > 2 classes (#129)

  • Improved dfm.tokenizedTexts() performance by taking care of zero-token documents more efficiently.

  • dictionary(file = "liwc_formatted_dict.dic", format = "LIWC") now handles poorly formatted dictionary files better, such as the Moral Foundations Dictionary in the examples for ?dictionary.

  • added as.tokenizedTexts to coerce any list of characters to a tokenizedTexts object.

Bug fixes >= 0.9.6-3

  • Fix bug in phrasetotoken, signature 'corpus,ANY' that was causing an infinite loop.

  • Fixed bug introduced in commit b88287f (0.9.5-26) that caused a failure in dfm() with empty (zero-token) documents. Also fixes Issue #168.

  • Fixed bug that caused dfm() to break if no features or only one feature was found.

  • Fixed bug in predict.fitted_textmodel_NB() that caused a failure with k > 2 classes (#129)

Bug fixes

  • Fixed a false-alarm warning message in textmodel_wordfish()

  • Argument defaults for readability.corpus() now same as readability.character(). Fixes #107.

  • Fixed a bug causing LIWC format dictionary imports to fail if extra characters followed the closing % in the file header.

  • Fixed a bug in applyDictionary(x, dictionary, exclusive = FALSE) when the dictionary produced no matches at all, caused by an attempt to negative index a NULL. #115

  • Fixed #117, a bug where wordstem.tokenizedTexts() removed attributes from the object, causing a failure of dfm.tokenizedTexts().

  • Fixed #119, a bug in selectFeatures.tokenizedTexts(x, features, selection = "remove") that returned a NULL for a document's tokens when no matching pattern for removal was found.

  • Improved the behaviour of the removeHyphens option to tokenize() when what = "fasterword" or what "fastestword".

  • readability() now returns measures in order called, not function definition order.

  • textmodel(x, model = "wordfish") now removes zero-frequency documents and words prior to calling Rcpp.

  • Fixed a bug in sample.corpus() that caused an error when no docvars existed. #128

quanteda 0.9.4

  • Added presidents' first names to inaugCorpus

  • Added textmodel implementation of multinomial and Bernoulli Naive Bayes.

  • Improved documentation.

  • Added c.corpus() method for concatenating arbitrarily large sets of corpus objects.

  • Default for similarity() is now margin = "documents" -- prevents overly massive results if selection = NULL.

  • Defined rowMeans() and colMeans() methods for dfm objects.

  • Enhancements to summary.character() and summary.corpus(): Added n = to summary.character(); added pass-through options to tokenize() in summary.corpus() and summary.character() methods; added toLower as an argument to both.

  • Enhancements to corpus object indexing, including [[ and [[<-.

Bug fixes

  • Fixed a bug preventing smoother() from working.

  • Fixed a bug in segment.corpus(x, what = "tag") that was failing to recover the tag values after the first text.

  • Fix bug in plot.dfm(x, comparison = TRUE) method causing warning about rowMeans() failing.

  • Fixed an issue for mfdict <- dictionary(file = "http://ow.ly/VMRkL", format = "LIWC") causing it to fail because of the irregular combination of tabs and spaces in the dictionary file.

  • Fixed an exception thrown by wordstem.character(x) if one element of x was NA.

  • dfm() on a text or tokenized text containing an NA element now returns a row with 0 feature counts. Previously it returned a count of 1 for an NA feature.

  • Fix issue #91 removeHyphens = FALSE not working in tokenise for some multiple intra-word hyphens, such as "one-of-a-kind"

  • Fixed a bug in as.matrix.similMatrix() that caused scrambled conversion when feature sets compared were unequal, which normally occurs when setting similarity(x, n = <something>) when n < nfeature(x)

  • Fixed a bug in which a corpusSource object (from textfile()) with empty docvars prevented this argument from being supplied to corpus(corpusSourceObject, docvars = something).

  • Fixed inaccurate documentation for weight(), which previously listed unavailable options.

  • More accurate and complete documentation for tokenize().

  • traps an exception when calling wordstem.tokenizedTexts(x) where x was not word tokenized.

  • Fixed a bug in textfile() that prevented passthrough arguments in ..., such as fileEncoding = or encoding =

  • Fixed a bug in textfile() that caused exceptions with input documents containing docvars when there was only a single column of docvars (such as .csv files)

quanteda 0.9.2

  • added new methods for similarity(), including sparse matrix computation for method = "correlation" and "cosine". (More planned soon.) Also allows easy conversion to a matrix using as.matrix() on similarity lists.

  • more robust implementation of LIWC-formatted dictionary file imports

  • better implementation of tf-idf, and relative frequency weighting, especially for very large sparse matrix objects. tf(), idf(), and tfidf() now provide relative term frequency, inverse document frequency, and tf-idf directly.

  • textmodel_wordfish() now accepts an integer dispersionFloor argument to constrain the phi parameter to a minimum value (of underdispersion).

  • textfile() now takes a vector of filenames, if you wish to construct these yourself. See ?textfile examples.

  • removeFeatures() and selectFeatures.collocations() now all use a consistent interface and same underlying code, with removeFeatures() acting as a wrapper to selectFeatures().

  • convert(x, to = "stm") now about 3-4x faster because it uses index positions from the dgCMatrix to convert to the sparse matrix format expected by stm.

Bug fixes

  • Fixed a bug in textfile() preventing encodingFrom and encodingTo from working properly.

  • Fixed a nasty bug problem in convert(x, to = "stm") that mixed up the word indexes. Thanks Felix Haass for spotting this!

  • Fixed a problem where wordstem was not working on ngram=1 tokenized objects

  • Fixed toLower(x, keepAcronyms = TRUE) that caused an error when x contained no acronyms.

  • Creating a corpus from a tm VCorpus now works if a "document" is a vector of texts rather than a single text

  • Fixed a bug in texts(x, groups = MORE THAN ONE DOCVAR) that now groups correctly on combinations of multiple groups

quanteda 0.9.0

  • trim() now accepts proportions in addition to integer thresholds. Also accepts a new sparsity argument, which works like tm's removeSparseTerms(x, sparse = ) (for those who really want to think of sparsity this way).

  • [i] and [i, j] indexing of corpus objects is now possible, for extracting texts or docvars using convenient notation. See ?corpus Details.

  • ngrams() and skipgrams() now use the same underlying function, with skip replacing the previous window argument (where a skip = window - 1). For efficiency, both are now implemented in C++.

  • tokenize() has a new argument, removeHyphens, that controls the treatment of intra-word hyphens.

  • Added new measures from readability for mean syllables per word and mean words per sentence directly.

  • wordstem now works on ngrams (tokenizedTexts and dfm objects).

  • Enhanced operation of kwic(), including the definition of a kwic class object, and a plot method for this object (produces a dispersion plot).

  • Lots more error checking of arguments passed to ... (and potentially misspecified or misspelled). Addresses Issue #62.

  • Almost all methods are now methods defined for objects, from a generic.

  • texts(x, groups = ) now allows groups to be factors, not just document variable labels. There is a new method for texts.character(x, groups = ) which is useful for supplying a factor to concatenate character objects by group.

Bug Fixes

  • corrected inaccurate printing of valuetype in verbose note of selectFeatures.dfm(). (Did not affect functionality.)

  • fixed broken quanteda.R demo, expanded demonstration code.

quanteda 0.8.6

  • removeFeatures.dfm(x, stopwords), selectFeatures.dfm(x, features), and dfm(x, ignoredFeatures) now work on objects created with ngrams. (Any ngram containing a stopword is removed.) Performance on these functions is already good but will be improved further soon.

  • selectFeatures(x, features = ) is now possible, to produce a selection of features from x identical to those in . Not only are only features kept in x that are in , but also features in not in x are added to x as padded zero counts. This functionality can also be accessed via dfm(x, keptFeatures = ). This is useful when new data used in a test set needs to have identical features as a training set dfm constructed at an earlier stage.

  • head.dfm() and tail.dfm() methods added.

  • kwic() has new formals and new functionality, including a completely flexible set of matching for phrases, as well as control over how the texts and matching keyword(s) are tokenized.

  • segment(x, what = "sentence"), and changeunits(x, to = "sentences") now uses tokenize(x, what = "sentence"). Annoying warning messages now gone.

  • smoother() and weight() formal "smooth" now changed to "smoothing" to avoid clashes with stats::smooth().

  • Updated corpus.VCorpus() to work with recent updates to the tm package.

  • added print method for tokenizedTexts

Bug fixes

  • fixed signature error message caused by weight(x, "relFreq") and weight(x, "tfidf"). Both now correctly produce objects of class dfmSparse.

  • fixed bug in dfm(, keptFeatures = "whatever") that passed it through as a glob rather than a regex to selectFeatures(). Now takes a regex, as per the manual description.

  • fixed textfeatures() for type json, where now it can call jsonlite::fromJSON() on a file directly.

  • dictionary(x, format = "LIWC") now expanded to 25 categories by default, and handles entries that are listed on multiple lines in .dic files, such as those distributed with the LIWC.

quanteda 0.8.4

  • ngrams() rewritten to accept fully vectorized arguments for n and for window, thus implementing "skip-grams". Separate function skipgrams() behaves in the standard "skipgram" fashion. bigrams(), deprecated since 0.7, has been removed from the namespace.

  • corpus() no longer checks all documents for text encoding; rather, this is now based on a random sample of max()

  • wordstem.dfm() both faster and more robust when working with large objects.

  • toLower.NULL() now allows toLower() to work on texts with no words (returns NULL for NULL input)

  • textfile() now works on zip archives of *.txt files, although this may not be entirely portable.

Bug fixes

  • fixed bug in selectFeatures() / removeFeatures() that returned zero features if no features were found matching removal pattern

  • corpus() previously removed document names, now fixed

  • non-portable \donttest{} examples now removed completely from all documentation

quanteda 0.8.2

  • 0.8.2-1: Changed R version dependency to 3.2.0 so that Mac binary would build on CRAN.

  • 0.8.2-1: sample.corpus() now samples documents from a corpus, and sample.dfm() samples documents or features from a dfm. trim() method for with nsample argument now calls sample.dfm().

  • sample.corpus() now samples documents from a corpus, and sample.dfm() samples documents or features from a dfm. trim() method for with nsample argument now calls sample.dfm().

  • tokenize improvements for what = "sentence": more robust to specifying options, and does not split sentences after common abbreviations such as "Dr.", "Prof.", etc.

  • corpus() no longer automatically converts encodings detected as non-UTF-8, as this detection is too imprecise.

  • new function scrabble() computes English Scrabble word values for any text, applying any summary numerical function.

  • dfm() now 2x faster, replacing previous data.table matching with direct construction of sparse matrix from match().
    Code is also much simpler, based on using three new functions that are also available directly:

    • new "dfm" method for removeFeatures()
    • new "dfm" method: selectFeatures() that is now how features can be added or removed from a dfm, based on vectors of regular expressions, globs, or fixed matching
    • new "dfm" method: applyDictionary() that can replace features through matching with values in key-value lists from a dictionary class objects, based on vectors of regular expressions, globs, or fixed matching for dictionary values. All functionality for applying dictionaries now takes place through applyDictionary().

Bug Fixes

  • fixed the problem that document names were getting erased in corpus() because stringi functions were removing them
  • fixed problem in tokenize(x, "character", removePunct = TRUE) that deleted texts that had no punctuation to begin with
  • fixed problem in dictionary(, format = "LIWC") causing import to fail for some LIWC dictionaries.
  • fixed problem in tokenize(x, ngrams = N) where N > length(x). Now returns NULL instead of an erroneously tokenized set of ngrams.
  • Fixed a bug in subset.corpus() related to environments that sometimes caused the method to break if nested in function environments.


  • clean() is no more.

API changes

  • addto option removed from dfm()

Imminent Changes

  • change behaviour of ignoredFeatures and removeFeatures() applied to ngrams; change behaviour of stem = TRUE applied to ngrams (in dfm())
  • create ngrams.tokenizedTexts() method, replacing current ngrams(), bigrams()

quanteda 0.8.0

Syntax changes and workflow streamlining

The workflow is now more logical and more streamlined, with a new workflow vignette as well as a design vignette explaining the principles behind the workflow and the commands that encourage this workflow. The document also details the development plans and things remaining to be done on the project.

Encoding detection and conversion

Newly rewritten command encoding() detects encoding for character, corpus, and corpusSource objects (created by textfile). When creating a corpus using corpus(), detection is automatic to UTF-8 if an encoding other than UTF-8, ASCII, or ISO-8859-1 is detected.

Major infrastructural changes

The tokenization, cleaning, lower-casing, and dfm construction functions now use the stringi package, based on the ICU library. This results not only in substantial speed improvements, but also more correctly handles Unicode characters and strings.

  • tokenize() and clean() now using stringi, resulting in much faster performance and more consistent behaviour across platforms.

  • tokenize() now works on sentences

  • summary.corpus() and summary.character() now use the new tokenization functions for counting tokens

  • dfm(x, dictionary = mydict) now uses stringi and is both more reliable and many many times faster.

  • phrasetotoken() now using stringi.

  • removeFeatures() now using stringi and fixed binary matches on tokenized texts

Other changes

  • textfile has a new option, cache = FALSE, for not writing the data to a temporary file, but rather storing the object in memory if that is preferred.

  • language() is removed. (See Encoding... section above for changes to encoding().)

  • new object encodedTexts contains some encoded character objects for testing.

  • ie2010Corpus now has UTF-8 encoded texts (previously was Unicode escaped for non-ASCII characters)

  • texts() and docvars() methods added for corpusSource objects.

  • new methods for tokenizedTexts objects: dfm(), removeFeatures(), and syllables()

  • syllables() is now much faster, using matching through stringi and merging using data.table.

  • added readability() to compute (fast!) readability indexes on a text or corpus

  • tokenize() now creates ngrams of any length, with two new arguments: ngrams = and concatenator = "_". The new arguments to tokenize() can be passed through from dfm().

Bug fixes

  • fixed a problem in textfile() causing it to fail on Windows machines when loading *.txt

  • nsentence() was not counting sentences correctly if the text was lower-cased - now issues an error if no upper-case characters are detected. This was also causing readability() to fail.

quanteda 0.7.3

  • added an ntoken() method for dfm objects.

  • fixed a bug wherein convert(anydfm, to = "tm") created a DocumentTermMatrix, not a TermDocumentMatrix. Now correctly creates a TermDocumentMatrix. (Both worked previously in topicmodels::LDA() so many users may not notice the change.)

quanteda 0.7.2

  • phrasetotokens works with dictionaries and collocations, to transform multi-word expressions into single tokens in texts or corpora

  • dictionaries now redefined as S4 classes

  • improvements to collocations(), now does not include tokens that are separated by punctuation

  • created tokenizeOnly*() functions, for testing tokenizing separately from cleaning, and a cleanC(), where both new separate functions are implemented in C

  • tokenize() now has a new option, cpp=TRUE, to use a C++ tokenizer and cleaner, resulting in much faster text tokenization and cleaning, including that used in dfm()

  • textmodel_wordfish now implemented entirely in C for speed. No std errors yet but coming soon. No predict method currently working either.

  • ie2010Corpus, and exampleString now moved into quanteda (formerly were only in quantedaData because of non-ASCII characters in each - solved with native2ascii and \uXXXX encodings).

  • All dependencies, even conditional, to the quantedaData and austin packages have been removed.

quanteda 0.7.1

Many major changes to the syntax in this version.

  • trimdfm, flatten.dictionary, the textfile functions, dictionary converters are all gone from the NAMESPACE

  • formals changed a bit in clean(), kwic().

  • compoundWords() -> phrasetotoken()

  • Cleaned up minor issues in documentation.

  • countSyllables data object renamed to englishSyllables.Rdata, and function renamed to syllables().

  • stopwordsGet() changed to stopwords(). stopwordsRemove() changed to removeFeatures().

  • new dictionary() constructor function that also does import and conversion, replacing old readWStatdict and readLIWCdict functions.

  • one function to read in text files, called textsource, that does the work for different file types based on the filename extension, and works also for wildcard expressions (that can link to directories for example)

quanteda 0.7.0

  • dfm now sparse by default, implemented as subclasses of the Matrix package. Option dfm(..., matrixType="sparse") is now the default, although matrixType="dense" will still produce the old S3-class dfm based on a regular matrix, and all dfm methods will still work with this object.

  • Improvements to: weight(), print() for dfms.

  • New methods for dfms: docfreq(), weight(), summary(), as.matrix(), as.data.frame.

quanteda 0.6.6

  • No more depends, all done through imports. Passes clean check. The start of our reliance more on the master branch rather than having merges from dev to master happen only once in a blue moon.

  • bigrams in dfm() when bigrams=TRUE and ignoredFeatures= now removed if any bigram contains an ignoredFeature

  • stopwordsRemove() now defined for sparse dfms and for collocations.

  • stopwordsRemove() now requires an explicit stopwords= argument, to emphasize the user's responsibility for applying stopwords.

quanteda 0.6.5

  • New engine for dfm now implemented as standard, using data.table and Matrix for fast, efficient (sparse) matrixes.

  • Added trigram collocations (n=3) to collocations().

  • Improvements to clean(): Minor fixes to clean() so that removeDigits=TRUE removes "€10bn" entirely and not just the "€10". clean() now removes http and https URLs by default, although does not preserve them (yet). clean also handles numbers better, to remove 1,000,000 and 3.14159 if removeDigits=TRUE but not crazy8 or 4sure.

  • dfm works for documents that contain no features, including for dictionary counts. Thanks to Kevin Munger for catching this.

quanteda 0.6.4

  • first cut at REST APIs for Twitter and Facebook

  • some minor improvements to sentence segmentation

  • improvements to package dependencies and imports - but this is ongoing!

  • Added more functions to dfms, getting there...

  • Added the ability to segment a corpus on tags (e.g. ##TAG1 text text, ##TAG2) and have the document split using the tags as a delimiter and the tag then added to the corpus as a docvar.

quanteda 0.6.3

  • added textmodel_lda support, including LDA, CTM, and STM. Added a converter dfm2stmformat() between dfm and stm's input format.

  • as.dfm works now for data.frame objects

  • added Arabic to list of stopwords. (Still working on a stemmer for Arabic.)

quanteda 0.6.2

  • The first appearance of dfms(), to create a sparse Matrix using the Matrix package. Eventually this will become the default format for all but small dfms. Not only is this far more efficient, it is also much faster.

  • Minor speed gains for clean() -- but still much more work to be done with clean().

quanteda 0.6.1

  • started textmodel_wordfish, textmodel_ca. textmodel_wordfish takes an mcmc argument that calls JAGS wordfish.

  • now depends on ca, austin rather than importing them

  • dfm subsetting with [,] now works

  • docnames()[], []<-, docvars()[] and []<- now work correctly

quanteda 0.6.0

  • Added textmodel for scaling and prediction methods, including for starters, wordscores and naivebayes class models. LIKELY TO BE BUGGY AND QUIRKY FOR A WHILE.

  • Added smoothdfm() and weight() methods for dfms.

  • Fixed a bug in segmentSentence().

quanteda 0.5.8

Classification and scaling methods

  • New dfm methods for fitmodel(), predict(), and specific model fitting and prediction methods called by these, for classification and scaling of different "textmodel" types, such as wordscores and Naive Bayes (for starters).

quanteda 0.5.7

  • added compoundWords() to turn space-delimited phrases into single "tokens". Works with dfm(, dictionary=) if the text has been pre-processed with compoundWords() and the dictionary joins phrases with the connector ("_"). May add this functionality to be more automatic in future versions.

  • new keep argument for trimdfm() now takes a regular expression for which feature labels to retain. New defaults for minDoc and minCount (1 each).

  • added nfeature() method for dfm objects.

New arguments for dfm()

  • thesaurus: works to record equivalency classes as lists of words or regular expressions for a given key/label.

  • keep: regular expression pattern match for features to keep

quanteda 0.5.6

  • added readLIWCdict() to read LIWC-formatted dictionaries

  • fixed a "bug"/feature in readWStatDict() that eliminated wildcards (and all other punctuation marks) - now only converts to lower.

  • improved clean() functions to better handle Twitter, punctuation, and removing extra whitespace

quanteda 0.5.5

  • fixed broken dictionary option in dfm()

  • fixed a bug in dfm() that was preventing clean() options from being passed through

  • added Dice and point-wise mutual information as association measures for collocations()

  • added: similarity() to implement similarity measures for documents or features as vector representations

  • begun: implementing dfm resample methods, but this will need more time to work.
    (Solution: a three way table where the third dim is the resampled text.)

  • added is.resample() for dfm and corpus objects

  • added Twitter functions: getTweets() performs a REST search through twitteR, corpus.twitter creates a corpus object with test and docvars form each tweet (operational but needs work)

  • added various resample functions, including making dfm a multi-dimensional object when created from a resampled corpus and dfm(, bootstrap=TRUE).

  • modified the print.dfm() method.

quanteda 0.5.4

  • updated corpus.directory to allow specification of the file extension mask

  • updated docvars<- and metadoc<- to take the docvar names from the assigned data.frame if field is omitted.

  • added field to docvars()

  • enc argument in corpus() methods now actually converts from enc to "UTF-8"

  • started working on clean to give it exceptions for @ # _ for twitter text and to allow preservation of underscores used in bigrams/collocations.

  • Added: a + method for corpus objects, to combine a corpus using this operator.

  • Changed and fixed: collocations(), which was not only fatally slow and inefficient, but also wrong. Now is much faster and O(n) because it uses data.table and vector operations only.

  • Added: resample() for corpus texts.

quanteda 0.5.3

  • added statLexdiv() to compute the lexical diversity of texts from a dfm.

  • minor bug fixes; update to print.corpus() output messages.

  • added a wrapper function for SnowballC::wordStem, called wordstem(), so that this can be imported without loading the whole package.

quanteda 0.5.2

  • Added a corpus constructor method for the VCorpus class object from the tm package.

  • added zipfiles() to unzip a directory of text files from disk or a URL, for easy import into a corpus using corpus.directory(zipfiles())

quanteda 0.5.1

  • Fixed all the remaining issues causing warnings in R CMD CHECK, now all are fixed.
    Mostly these related to documentation.

  • Fixed corpus.directory to better implementing naming of docvars, if found.

  • Moved twitter.R to the R_NEEDFIXING until it can be made to pass tests. Apparently setup_twitter_oauth() is deprecated in the latest version of the twitteR package.

quanteda 0.5.0

Lots of new functions

  • plot.dfm method for producing word clouds from dfm objects

  • print.dfm, print.corpus, and summary.corpus methods now defined

  • new accessor functions defined, such as docnames(), settings(), docvars(), metadoc(), metacorpus(), encoding(), and language()

  • replacement functions defined that correspond to most of the above accessor functions, e.g. encoding(mycorpus) <- "UTF-8"

  • segment(x, to=c("tokens", "sentences", "paragraphs", "other", ...) now provides an easy and powerful method for segmenting a corpus by units other than just tokens

  • a settings() function has been added to manage settings that would commonly govern how texts are converted for processing, so that these can be preserved in a corpus and applied to operations that are relevant. These settings also propagate to a dfm for both replication purposes and to govern operations for which they would be relevant, when applied to a dfm.

Old functions vastly improved

  • better ways now exist to manage corpus internals, such as through the accessor functions, rather than trying to access the internal structure of the corpus directly.

  • basic functions such as tokenize(), clean(), etc are now faster, neater, and operate generally on vectors and return consistent object types

Better object and class design

  • the corpus object has been redesigned with more flexible components, including a settings list, better corpus-level metadata, and smarter implementation of document-level attributes including user-defined variables (docvars) and document- level meta-data (metadoc)

  • the dfm now has a proper class definition, including additional attributes that hold the settings used to produce the dfm.

  • all important functions are now defined as methods for classes of built-in (e.g. character) objects, or quanteda objects such as a corpus or dfm. Lots of functions operate on both, for instance dfm.corpus(x) and dfm.character(x).

more complete documentation

  • all functions are now documented and have working examples

  • quanteda.pdf provides a pdf version of the function documentation in one easy-to-access document

Reference manual

It appears you don't have a PDF plugin for this browser. You can click here to download the reference manual.


3.1.0 by Kenneth Benoit, 2 months ago


Report a bug at https://github.com/quanteda/quanteda/issues

Browse source code at https://github.com/cran/quanteda

Authors: Kenneth Benoit [cre, aut, cph] , Kohei Watanabe [aut] , Haiyan Wang [aut] , Paul Nulty [aut] , Adam Obeng [aut] , Stefan Müller [aut] , Akitaka Matsuo [aut] , William Lowe [aut] , Christian Müller [ctb] , European Research Council [fnd] (ERC-2011-StG 283794-QUANTESS)

Documentation:   PDF Manual  

Task views: Natural Language Processing

GPL-3 license

Imports fastmatch, magrittr, Matrix, Rcpp, RcppParallel, SnowballC, stopwords, stringi, xml2, yaml

Depends on methods

Suggests rmarkdown, spelling, testthat, formatR, tm, tokenizers, knitr, lda, lsa, dplyr, purrr, quanteda.textmodels, quanteda.textstats, quanteda.textplots, RColorBrewer, slam, spacyr, stm, text2vec, topicmodels, jsonlite, quanteda, tibble, tidytext, xtable, ggplot2

Linking to Rcpp, RcppParallel, RcppArmadillo

System requirements: C++11

Imported by LDAShiny, LSX, RNewsflow, conText, corpustools, doc2concrete, docreview, gofastr, keyATM, newsmap, oolong, politeness, quanteda.textmodels, quanteda.textplots, quanteda.textstats, rainette, sentometrics, stm, textstem, tosca.

Depended on by seededlda.

Suggested by explor, mlr3pipelines, quanteda, readtext, spacyr, stminsights, stopwords, text2map, tidylda, tidytext.

Enhanced by corpus.

See at CRAN