Multilingual Stopword Lists

Provides multiple sources of stopwords, for use in text analysis and natural language processing.

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R package providing "one-stop shopping" for stopword lists in R, for multiple languages and sources. No longer should text analysis or NLP packages bake in their own stopword lists or functions, since this package can accomodate them all, and is easily extended.

Created by David Muhr, and extended in cooperation with Kenneth Benoit and Kohei Watanabe.


# Or get the development version from GitHub:
# install.packages("devtools")


head(stopwords::stopwords("de", source = "snowball"), 20)
##  [1] "aber"    "alle"    "allem"   "allen"   "aller"   "alles"   "als"    
##  [8] "also"    "am"      "an"      "ander"   "andere"  "anderem" "anderen"
## [15] "anderer" "anderes" "anderm"  "andern"  "anderr"  "anders"
head(stopwords::stopwords("de", source = "stopwords-iso"), 20)
##  [1] "a"           "ab"          "aber"        "ach"         "acht"       
##  [6] "achte"       "achten"      "achter"      "achtes"      "ag"         
## [11] "alle"        "allein"      "allem"       "allen"       "aller"      
## [16] "allerdings"  "alles"       "allgemeinen" "als"         "also"

For compability with the former quanteda::stopwords():

head(stopwords::stopwords("german"), 20)
##  [1] "aber"    "alle"    "allem"   "allen"   "aller"   "alles"   "als"    
##  [8] "also"    "am"      "an"      "ander"   "andere"  "anderem" "anderen"
## [15] "anderer" "anderes" "anderm"  "andern"  "anderr"  "anders"

Explore sources and languages:

# list all sources
## [1] "snowball"      "stopwords-iso" "misc"          "smart"
# list languages for a specific source
##  [1] "da" "de" "en" "es" "fi" "fr" "hu" "ir" "it" "nl" "no" "pt" "ro" "ru"
## [15] "sv"

Languages available

The following coverage of languages is currently available, by source. Note that the inclusiveness of the stopword lists will vary by source, and the number of languages covered by a stopword list does not necessarily mean that the source is better than one with more limited coverage. (There may be meany reasons to prefer the default "snowball" source over the "stopwords-iso" source, for instance.)

The following languages are currently available:

Language ISO-639-1 Code stopwords-iso snowball SMART misc
Afrikaans af
Arabic ar
Armenian hy
Basque eu
Bengali bn
Breton br
Bulgarian bg
Catalan ca
Chinese zh
Croatian hr
Czech cs
Danish da
Dutch nl
English en
Esperanto eo
Estonian et
Finnish fi
French fr
Galician gl
German de
Greek el
Hausa ha
Hebrew he
Hindi hi
Hungarian hu
Indonesian id
Irish ga
Italian it
Japanese ja
Korean ko
Kurdish ku
Latin la
Lithuanian lt
Latvian lv
Malay ms
Marathi mr
Norwegian no
Persian fa
Polish pl
Portuguese pt
Romanian ro
Russian ru
Slovak sk
Slovenian sl
Somali so
Southern Sotho st
Spanish es
Swahili sw
Swedish sv
Thai th
Tagalog tl
Turkish tr
Ukrainian uk
Urdu ur
Vietnamese vi
Yoruba yo
Zulu zu


Additional sources can be defined and contributed by adding new data objects, as follows:

  1. Data object. Create a named list of characters, in UTF-8 format, consisting of the stopwords for each language. The ISO-639-1 language code will form the name of the list element, and the values of each element will be the character vector of stopwords for literal matches. The data object should follow the package naming convention, and be called data_stopwords_newsource, where newsource is replaced by the name of the new source.

  2. Documentation. The new source should be clearly documented, especially the source from which was taken.


This package as well as the source repositories are licensed under MIT.


stopwords v0.9 (Release date: TBC)


  • Added Snowball, misc, and SMART stopwords.
  • Replaced exposed data object with the function stopwords().
  • Made completely compatible with quanteda::stopwords() to provide a replacement for that function.
  • Significantly improved documenation.

stopwords v0.1.0 (Release date: 2017-11-09)


  • Initial release
  • Submission feedback (removed redundant "in R" in title and changed license to CRAN template)
  • Submission feedback (added examples)

Reference manual

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2.3 by Kenneth Benoit, a month ago

Report a bug at

Browse source code at

Authors: Kenneth Benoit [aut, cre] , David Muhr [aut] , Kohei Watanabe [aut]

Documentation:   PDF Manual  

MIT + file LICENSE license

Imports ISOcodes

Suggests covr, quanteda, spelling, testthat

Imported by MediaNews, Twitmo, discoverableresearch, fdm2id, labourR, quanteda, texter, textmineR.

Suggested by hunspell, mlr3pipelines, sentometrics, textrecipes, tidytext, tokenizers, vosonSML.

See at CRAN