Tools for Polyploid Microsatellite Analysis

A collection of tools to handle microsatellite data of any ploidy (and samples of mixed ploidy) where allele copy number is not known in partially heterozygous genotypes. It can import and export data in ABI 'GeneMapper', 'Structure', 'ATetra', 'Tetrasat'/'Tetra', 'GenoDive', 'SPAGeDi', 'POPDIST', 'STRand', and binary presence/absence formats. It can calculate pairwise distances between individuals using a stepwise mutation model or infinite alleles model, with or without taking ploidies and allele frequencies into account. These distances can be used for the calculation of clonal diversity statistics or used for further analysis in R. Allelic diversity statistics and Polymorphic Information Content are also available. polysat can assist the user in estimating the ploidy of samples, and it can estimate allele frequencies in populations, calculate pairwise or global differentiation statistics based on those frequencies, and export allele frequencies to 'SPAGeDi' and 'adegenet'. Functions are also included for assigning alleles to isoloci in cases where one pair of microsatellite primers amplifies alleles from two or more independently segregating isoloci. polysat is described by Clark and Jasieniuk (2011) and Clark and Schreier (2017) .


Changes in version 1.7-4

A "show" method has been added for "genambig" so that datasets print to the console in a more sensible manner. Tyler Smith authored this method and has been added as a contributor.

write.Structure now writes files that can be read directly by Structure without modification. write.SPAGeDi no longer writes a temporary file to the working directory (tempdir() is used instead).

A bug has been fixed in meandistance.matrix2 (via genotypeProbs) that caused errors when ploidy was equal to zero, which is a possible outcome of recodeAllopoly.

Alistair Hall has been added as a contributor for coauthoring the SAS code used by deSilvaFreq.

Changes in version 1.7-3

Fixed bug that would occur in a lot of functions (particularly functions dealing with allele frequencies, as well as genbinary objects) if loci had overlapping names, e.g. "myloc1"" and "loc1".

Minor speed and memory improvements for deSilvaFreq and meandistance.matrix2.

PIC now returns NA if a marker is entirely missing for a population, rather than giving an error.

Updated citation for Clark and Schreier (2017). Acknowledgement of HN de Silva as contributor due to direct translation of his code from SAS into R for parts of this package.

Changes in version 1.7-2

References to manuscripts describing polysat have been added to the DESCRIPTION file.

The PIC function has been updated to be compatible with R 3.5.

Changes in version 1.7-1

Bug fixes in alleleCorrelations, testAlGroups, and mergeAlleleAssignments have been made so that these functions can accomodate loci with a very small number of alleles (one or two).

Bug fixes in deSilvaFreq to help when allele names are very short, and to prevent the function from hanging.

An option for estimating Slatkin's Rst has been added to calcPopDiff.

Documentation for has been fixed so that the example can still run if adegenet is not installed. (This change was made in order to prevent polysat from failing package checks on Solaris systems.)

Changes in version 1.7-0

The function calcPopDiff has a new argument called "global" that can be used if global rather than pairwise statistics are desired. It also has an argument called "bootstrap" if replicates bootstrapped across loci are desired.

A new function has been introduced, called "PIC", that estimates the Polymorphic Information Content of loci.

The function "genIndex" has been added for rapidly identifying all unique genotypes for a given locus. meandistance.matrix and meandistance.matrix2 now call this function, reducing their processing time several-fold.

Bruvo.distance and Bruvo2.distance have been edited to speed processing several-fold. Package dependency on the combinat package has been removed since Bruvo.distance no longer requires combinat.

Updated citation information with DOI for Molecular Ecology Resources.

Changes in version 1.6-0

The allele swapping algorithm used by testAlGroups has changed. Allele assignments should be more accurate in general, at the expense of processing time.

A bug has been fixed in processDatasetAllo, affecting the contents of the missRate item in the function's output.

testAlGroups now outputs an additional item called proportion.inconsistent.genotypes, which indicates the proportion of genotypes in the dataset that are inconsistent with the allele assignments output by the function.

Changes in version 1.5-0

The functions processDatasetAllo, plotSSAllo, and plotParamHeatmap have been added to simplify the workflow when using alleleCorrelations and testAlGroups.

The function calcPopDiff has been added to allow estimation of Gst and Jost's D.

gendata validity function edited to prevent locus names from containing periods.

fixloci function added to clean up locus names so that they can be column headers. This has the consequence that characters such as spaces, hyphens, and parentheses will be automatically removed from locus names. Underscores are allowed.

Genotype and Genotypes assignment methods for the "genambig" class edited to prevent empty vectors or NA values from being assigned to genotypes.

deSilvaFreq edited to be compatible with ploidymatrix format. edited to allow multiple ploidies in the dataset, to be compatible with newer versions of adegenet.

Broken URLs in documentation fixed or removed.

Changes in version 1.4-1

Documentation for and updated to be compatible with adegenet 2.0.

Edited Description and Namespace to import from stats and utils for compatibility with R 3.3.

Validation function for gendata, as well as Samples and Loci replacement functions, edited to prevent samples and loci from having non-unique names.

Validation functions for genambig and genbinary edited to call the validation function from gendata.

All data import functions now call validObject immediately before returning the object, in order to confirm that genambig objects are formatted correctly.

Changes in version 1.4

Polysat 1.4 introduces a set of functions for assigning alleles to isoloci in allopolyploids and diploidized autopolyploids, and recoding datasets so that they can be analyzed under the assumption of random segregation. New functions include simAllopoly, alleleCorrelations, testAlGroups, catalanAlleles, mergeAlleleAssignments, and recodeAllopoly.

meandistance.matrix edited to throw an error if a "genambig" object is not provided.

meandist.from.array edited to reduce computation time. meandistance.matrix and meandistance.matrix2 edited to call meandist.from.array. edited to reduce computation time.

read.GeneMapper edited to throw an error if it encounters any rows with blank spaces or NA in the first allele position, or any rows with -9 outside of the first allele position.

Documentation for FCRinfo and testgenotypes updated to include citation for dataset.

Changes in version 1.3-3

Fixed an error that would occor if ploidies were in "ploidymatrix" format but there was only one sample or only one locus. (In the "pld" method for class "ploidymatrix".) Fixing this bug introduced another bug in simpleFreq, which has also been fixed.

Fixed PopInfo replacement method for the "gendata" class so that a warning would not be issued if all values are NA after replacement.

Copied all example files for data import into the "extdata" folder so that they will once again be part of the installation.

Edited the documentation of assignClones to suggest excluding samples with missing data.

Added an error message to the Ploidies<- replacement function if any individuals are being assigned a negative number as a ploidy. Added a warning to the same function if any individuals are being assigned a ploidy greater than 12.

genotypeProbs is edited to allow for missing genotypes to have a ploidy of zero.

read.Structure and read.STRand have been edited to prevent periods from being inserted into loci names.

read.Structure now has several options for assigning ploidy to the output dataset. (1) The ploidy of the file can be used as the ploidy of the entire dataset, (2) the maximum number of alleles per sample can be used to assign ploidy to each sample, or (3) the ploidies can be output as a matrix of allele counts for each sample*locus genotype, as in versions 1.3-0 through 1.3-2.

read.STRand documentation has been edited so that the example files produced more closely resemble files produced by STRand.

Package "combinat" changed from "Depends" to "Suggests" since it is only needed by the Bruvo.distance function. Package "methods" changed from "Depends" to "Imports". The functions Bruvo.distance and have been modified to have the correct syntax for package dependencies.

Changes in version 1.3-2

read.GeneMapper has been edited to prevent the import of alleles as factors. The forceInteger argument has also been added to this function to prevent users from accidentally importing alleles as character strings.

read.STRand has been edited to fix a bug that caused an error when a given locus had a maximum of one allele per individual.

Lynch.distance has been edited to be robust to alleles being repeated in a genotype (e.g. if a tetraploid homozygote is coded as AAAA instead of A).

The function Simpson.var, which calculates the variance of the Simpson index and can be used with the genotypeDiversity function, has been added.

Changes in version 1.3-1

The internal function .ulal1loc has been added. This function finds all unique alleles at a single locus. has been changed to use this function, resulting in about a 3% reduction in processing time.

The function alleleDiversity has been added. alleleDiversity finds and counts unique alleles in a dataset.

The functions read.STRand and have been added.

Changes in version 1.3-0

Ploidies can now be indexed by sample, locus, both, or neither. To accomplish this, the 'Ploidies' slot of a "gendata" object must now be an object of the class "ploidysuper", a virtual class which includes four new classes called "ploidymatrix", "ploidysample", "ploidylocus", and "ploidyone". Generic functions 'pld', 'pld<-', and 'plCollapse' have been defined with methods for these four new classes, in order to access and replace ploidy values and convert ploidy data between classes, respectively. The 'Ploidies' function now has 'sample' and 'locus' arguments so that ploidies can be retrieved in the same way regardless of how they are stored. 'reformatPloidies' is a new function for use on "gendata" objects, to change the class of the 'Ploidies' slot. The 'Loci' function now has a "ploidies" argument so that loci can be retrieved by ploidy, as could be done with samples in previous versions. Most functions in polysat have undergone minor changes in order to utilize the new flexibility in ploidy indexing.

genotypeDiversiy, Simpson, Shannon functions: Calculations are now based on counts rather than frequencies, which in the case of the Simpson index, allows correction for sample size.

genotypeDiversity: bug fix for cases in which a population only has one sample with non-missing data at a given locus.

assignClones: bug fix for cases in which there is just one sample.

'Genotypes' method of "genbinary" class: Bug fixed that would have simplified the genotypes matrix to a vector if a locus had only one allele. This also fixes an issue that came up with ''.

'' and '' functions: Minor bug fix to prevent warning messages if nothing has been stored to the 'PopInfo' slot. Also, bug fix in '' to allow for loci at which all data is missing.

Changes in version 1.2-1

Bruvo2.distance function has been added. This calculates an alternate version of the distance measure of Bruvo et al. (2004), under the models of genome loss and/or addition.

genotypeDiversity function: Default value of d has been changed to being calculated with Lynch.distance, since the default threshold value is 0 and Lynch.distance is faster.

Bruvo.distance function: If both genotypes are equal to the missing data value, the distance returned is now NA instead of 0.

read.GenoDive: Now correctly finds the "Individual" column, and uses it to extract sample names, whether or not a "Clones" column is included.

read.GeneMapper: Sample and locus names may now consist of any combination of letters and numbers. (There had been a bug that caused an error if samples or loci were named with non-consecutive numbers.)

Locus names are now allowed to be shorter versions of other locus names, e.g. "ABC1" and "ABC12". Fixed: 'Genotypes' method of "genbinary" class (this affects 'simpleFreq' and ''), 'deleteLoci' method of "genbinary" class, 'Loci<-' method of "genbinary" class, 'deSilvaFreq', 'calcFst', 'write.freq.SPAGeDi', and ''.

Changes in version 1.2-0

The internal functions .G, .indexg, .genlist, .ranmul, and .selfmat have been added. Previously, these existed only within the environment of the deSilvaFreq function. They have been moved to the polysat package environment in order to be used for the calculation of genotype probabilities in additional functions (i.e. meandistance.matrix2).

Functions genotypeProbs and meandistance.matrix2 have been added. This allows ambiguous genotypes to be dealt with in a more sophisticated way, calculating the probabiliity of each possible unambiguous genotype based on allele frequencies and selfing rate.

Functions assignClones, genotypeDiversity, Shannon, and Simpson have been added. These use distance matrices to assign individuals to clonal groups, and calculate diversity indices based on genotype frequencies.

Bruvo.distance function: Before any calculation is done, the function checks to see if usatnt is NA. If so, an error message is given telling the user to fill in the Usatnts slot. The error that the function would previously give in this case was not particularly informative.

deSilvaFreq function: Now checks to see if the 'self' argument is missing before performing any calculations. This means that a more informative error message is given if the selfing rate is not provided. Also, the line smatt <- smat/smatdiv has been moved out of the while loop and is now performed immediately after the calculation of smat, to reduce computation time.

Bug fix in write.GeneMapper. It can now write files correctly when there are more alleles than the ploidy of the individual.

Changes in version 1.1-0

read.POPDIST, write.POPDIST, and functions added.

read.Tetrasat function changed so that the comment line can't be accidentally read as a "Pop" line if it contains the letters "pop". The documentation for this function now also instructs the user not to have any locus name contain the letters "pop" adjacent to each other.

write.Tetrasat function changed so that if the 'samples' argument excludes some populations, there won't be a "Pop" line for these populations.

Changes in version 1.0-1

Bug fixed in the 'editGenotypes' method for "genambig" objects. stringsAsFactors=FALSE was added for the data frame that is sent to the 'edit' function, so that samples and loci are indexed correctly when genotypes are written back to the object that is returned. Version 1.0 would rearrange the genotypes if the samples or loci were not in alphabetical order.

Changes in version 1.0

The S4 classes "gendata", "genambig", and "genbinary" and their accompanying methods have been added. This allows genotypes, population identities, population names, ploidies, microsatellite repeat lengths, and a description to all be stored in one object, while in version 0.1 they had to be stored in separate objects. Because of this, many of the functions require fewer arguments, and user error should be reduced.

The functions 'viewGenotypes' and 'editGenotypes' have been added so that genotypes can be more neatly printed to the console, and can be edited with the Data Editor as an alternative to command-line genotype editing.

The 'isMissing' function is added to simplify the identification of missing genotypes.

The function 'estimatePloidy' now directly opens the Data Editor and then returns the ploidies to the appropriate slot in the "gendata" object. Previously, the function produced an array from which ploidies had to be manually extracted.

The function 'distance.matrix.1locus' no longer exists since it has been consolidated into the 'meandistance.matrix' function. 'Lynch.distance' has a 'usatnt' argument added to it for the sake of simplifying the code for 'meandistance.matrix'; this argument is ignored by 'Lynch.distance'.

The new function 'deSilvaFreq' performs an iterative computation to estimate allele freqencies in populations with uniform, even-numbered ploidy and a known selfing rate. The old function 'estimate.freq' is renamed 'simpleFreq'.

A function 'write.freq.SPAGeDi' is added to export allele frequencies to SPAGeDi.

Reference manual

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1.7-6 by Lindsay V. Clark, a month ago

Browse source code at

Authors: Lindsay V. Clark [aut, cre] , Alistair J. Hall [ctb] , Handunnethi Nihal de Silva [ctb] , Tyler William Smith [ctb]

Documentation:   PDF Manual  

GPL-2 license

Imports methods, stats, utils, grDevices, graphics, Rcpp

Suggests ade4, adegenet, ape

Linking to Rcpp

Imported by poppr.

See at CRAN