Computerized Adaptive Testing with Multidimensional Item Response Theory

Provides tools to generate an HTML interface for creating adaptive and non-adaptive educational and psychological tests using the shiny package (Chalmers (2016) ). Suitable for applying unidimensional and multidimensional computerized adaptive tests (CAT) using item response theory methodology and for creating simple questionnaires forms to collect response data directly in R. Additionally, optimal test designs (e.g., "shadow testing") are supported for tests which contain a large number of item selection constraints. Finally, package contains tools useful for performing Monte Carlo simulations for studying the behavior of computerized adaptive test banks.

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Computerized Adaptive Testing with Multidimensional Item Response Theory



Provides tools to generate an HTML interface for creating adaptive and non-adaptive educational and psychological tests using the shiny package. Suitable for applying unidimensional and multidimensional computerized adaptive tests using item response theory methodology.

Examples and Evaluated Help Files

Various examples and worked help files have been compiled using the knitr package to generate HTML output, and are available on the wiki. User contributions are welcome!

Math Table

Installing from Github

To install the development version of this package, use the following code.

#if not installed already on your computer, install devtools
#load and install the package
#reload the package

Bugs and Questions

Bug reports are always welcome and the preferred way to address these bugs is through the Github 'issues'. Feel free to submit issues or feature requests on the site, and I'll address them ASAP. Also, if you have any questions about the package, or IRT in general, then feel free to create a 'New Topic' in the mirt-package Google group. Cheers!


mirtCAT 1.8

  • default wrapper to Questions element in df input now uses shiny::HTML rather than the previous shiny::p. This allows for HTML code to more naturally be included, as well as the use of shiny tag constructor functions when used in concert with as.character(). This deprecates the previous df$StemExpressions format

  • list inputs for choiceValues and choiceNames can accept named input elements that match the associated rownames in the df input to avoid the use of placeholders

  • The final page splash screen now removes the Next button to avoid confusion (suggested by Daniel Sommerhoff). Applications must be explicitly closed now by the user, and consequently the stopApp logical to the shinyGUI list has been deprecated

  • Fixed the random item selection exposure control, which was selection suboptimal items instead (reported by @machow on Github)

  • When Type input is text or textArea and forced_choice = TRUE then blocks of text input will also now be required. Otherwise, a message will be printed to the GUI

mirtCAT 1.7

  • message added in red whenever selection conditions not met (e.g., when using forced choice, rating scale options, or new mastery input)

  • added an optioanl Mastery input colum to df to prevent the GUI from continuing until the item is answered correctly (not useful for CATs, but supported for teaching interfaces)

  • added a rankselect GUI input to df$Type to create a list of rank-orded selection options corresponding to the input options

  • Fix bug when using sequentially scored test without forced choice (reported by Aron Fink)

mirtCAT 1.6

  • add Timer option to df intput to set time limits for select items

  • iterative algorithms now use the previous theta estimates as the starting values when locating the updated estimates

  • fix selection bug when using prior covariance matrix selection rules (reported by Johan Braeken)

  • computeCriteria() now respects the subset argument (reported by Johan Braeken)

mirtCAT 1.5

  • new choiceNames and choiceValues inputs to shinyGUI list to allow HTML stems for radio buttons and checkboxes (e.g., see the new arguments in help(radioButtons))

  • rotate x-axis 90 degrees in plot() generic by default

  • start_item can now be a vector to change the starting item for each off-line response pattern input in Monte Carlo simulations

  • fixed off-line starting item when set to 'random', which previously set each participant's start item the same (reported by Okan Bulut)

  • internal updating function for person class to avoid direct assignment in customUpdateThetas() function

mirtCAT 1.4

  • warning message and slot included in GUI results when session terminated unexpectedly

  • fix min items combination when using a preCAT list input (total min items is now the sum of both stages)

  • fix scoping bug when hosting GUI on server (reported by Murat Doğan ŞAHİN)

  • when a tab is closed early in the GUI the session now calls stopApp()

  • new customUpdateThetas function input to design to create a map of how the latent trait estimates should be updated throughout the session. To better expose the internals, the previous Update.thetas() function associated with a person class is now available as a slot in the design internal object

  • added subset and info_mats to computeCriteria() to compute the desired criteria on item subsets only and to return the information matrices used to compute criteria such as Drule, Trule, etc (requested by Johan Braeken)

mirtCAT 1.3

  • removed support for a list input for df object in place of a more flexible format which supports the arbitrary creation of user-defined item formats through the new customTypes argument. This is to be used in conjunction with the df$Type input to pair the respective inputs

  • added time_before_answer to shinyGUI list to include a require number of seconds to wait before a valid/omitted response can be accepted

  • add textAreaInput support to GUI for include text-boxes as possible inputs

  • df$StemExpression is now instead a logical vector used to indicate whether the questions definition should be evaluated in R first

  • added AnswerFun input to allow for user-defined functions for each respective item to determine whether the answer provided is correct or incorrect. Mainly useful for text-based items (suggested by Anna Mikolajetz)

  • added a theme input to shinyGUI to support predefined themes from the "shinythemes" package

mirtCAT 1.2

  • progress logical added to mirtCAT() to print the progress of Monte Carlo simulations with the pbapply package

  • Shadow testing and optimal test assembly designs supported by adding constr_fun input to mirtCAT() and objective input to findNextItem(). See the findNextItem() documentation for details and examples

  • computeCriteria() function added to return all the criteria values (e.g., maximum information) associated with each respective item

  • population-level Theta terms tracked internally for Monte Carlo simulations because generate_pattern() now stores the respective population values as a silent attribute. Will now be displayed in summary/print/plot outputs, where applicable

  • allow the internal design object to be modified through the customNextItem() function

  • added an extract.mirtCAT() function to better document and extract the components of the person, design, and test objects in customNextItem(). Allows for safer and easier customization of item selection maps

  • new test_properties and person_properties inputs to design element to allow for prior information about the test/persons (e.g., selecting particular items based on prior demographic information). Intended for use with a customNextItem() function definition

mirtCAT 1.1

  • added StemExpression to df input to support arbitrary R expressions for stems to be rendered with standard R code. Allows for inputs such as audio, video, etc, as well through the use of a suitable tags$FUN(...)

  • new password input to shinyGUI list to allow login and password gates. Useful when hosting CAT on a server with potentially sensitive items

  • default shiny stem wrapper function for df when it is a data.frame is now exposed via the stem_default_format input to shinyGUI

  • MathJax is now explicitly supported in the item stems and response options. As before, users can provide a manual list explicitly defining the shiny functions; however, if a data.frame object is used then the stems/responses will be automatically wrapped within a suitable shiny::withMathJax() function to render the output

  • mental preparation screen now disabled for non-scored tests when the mo object is omitted (i.e., equivalent to setting shinyGUI = list(begin_message = ""))

  • 'select' Type input to df now uses a blank option as the default to avoid clicking through accidentally. Also works better with the forced_choice default

mirtCAT 1.0

  • released for JSS publication

mirtCAT 0.9

  • fix MLWI/MPWI selection criteria

  • findNextItem() is allowed to return all items given the selection criteria

Changes in mirtCAT 0.8

  • include constraints option for excluded items (useful for re-testing situations where item selection is from the same bank of items but previously answered items should not appear)

  • new 'none' presentation Type to allow empty material with no responses (mainly for presenting reading passages or other testlet-based items). Useful when used in conjunction with the constraints input from the design list so that these items have predictable dependent pairings (or can be used with the customNextItem form as well for explicit dependencies)

  • shinyGUI input gained a ui element to allow users to completely customize the graphical UI with shiny code

  • added customNextItem function to allow a completely customized method for declaring the item selection scheme

  • support checkbox input type for checkboxGroupInput() function. Supplying one or more answers will score the items in a partial credit style

  • include missing input options in df input for shiny (e.g., width, placeholder, inline). Removed 'radio_inline' input because this can now be accomplished by passing Type = 'radio' and inline = TRUE

Changes in mirtCAT 0.6

  • added getPerson() function to assign a person object following the use of createShinyGUI

  • the raw_responses vector returned for each participant is now a character vector instead of an integer

  • added slider Type input for sliderInput rating scale questions

  • resume_file removed, now if an associated temp_file is detected it will be used to resume the GUI session

  • new begin_message input to shinyGUI to change message prior to starting the CAT

  • changed lastpage element in shinyGUI input from a list to a function to allow messages containing information pertaining to the session

Changes in mirtCAT 0.5

  • fix bug when using SH exposure control when the pool runs out of items

  • add delta_thetas argument to design list to stop CAT if change between latent trait updates is less than this distance criteria

  • include more functions to allow easier web hosting in locations such as Namely, mirtCAT_preamble() and createShinyGUI()

  • graphical images (png, gif, and jpeg) no longer supported. Stems preferably should in HTML for best results and control

  • Stem paths can now point to and render HTML and markdown files in the GUI

  • df input can now be a list for including more fine tuned shiny inputs

  • check for the existence of graphical item stems, and allow relative or absolute paths


  • fix stem location bug, and add better aspect ratio

  • the summary(mod, sort=FALSE) argument returned a NULL object instead of the unsorted response. This has been patched and is now tested for

  • when no df is supplied, check that the responses are in a plausible range (reported by Gerard Flens)

Changes in mirtCAT 0.4.2

  • forced_choice argument for shinyGUI input to state whether response for each item are required (for CATs, this should always be TRUE)

  • response in GUI now are blank by default

  • in preCAT list input change nitems to min_items and max_items for better control. Also include a response_variance logical to terminate the preCAT stage when variability in the the response options occurs (so that ML estimation becomes plausible)

  • include Sympson-Hetter method of item exposure control

  • major re-write of shiny inputs. Now the questions, answers, and options are all supplied through a data.frame object for better clarity, and all shiny inputs regarding the questions, image locations, etc, are specified in this object

  • mirt_object input renamed to mo for short

  • the local_pattern input now accepts a matrix of response patterns for running simulation designs. Returns a list of person objects instead of a single object

  • generate_pattern() now supports multiple Theta inputs specifically for simulation designs

  • start_item input now accepts character value inputs (in addition to explicit numeric inputs) corresponding to the criteria argument. This allows the first item to be selected using the (adaptive) selection criteria

  • added generate.mirt_object() function to build the required mirt_object input given population parameters

  • new cl argument in mirtCAT() for passing a parallel cluster object defined from the parallel package. Used to run simulation designs with parallel architecture for better speed

  • by default, the demographics page is no longer generated in the GUI

Changes in mirtCAT 0.3

  • item_answers can now be a list input, indicating that more than one correct answer is possible for a given item

  • allow the first page and demographics page to be skipped by passing empty list arguments

  • added 'fixed' method to keep latent trait estimates at fixed values (useful for preCAT)

  • Fisher information matrix added for remaining multidimensional models supported by mirt, including custom item types

  • add 'Arule' and 'APrule' for minimum trace criteria of asymptotic covariance matrix

Changes in mirtCAT 0.2

  • temporary files can now be saved while the GUI is running, and restored at a later time

  • more estimation options can be passed to fscores() via the ... argument

  • sensitive objects are now removed from the package namespace when the mirtCAT() finishes unsuccessfully

  • categories are always returned with based 1 for first response in the GUI

  • add content balancing option

  • various bug fixes, and update documentation

  • new findNextItem() input for users to locate the next item to administer (likely for custom CAT interfaces that do not use the Shiny package). Can be updated with the updateDesign() function

  • moved 'Next' button in the web interface to the left panel box so that it will always remain in the same location

  • support CSS customization

  • switch multidimensional selection criteria to use analytical expressions rather than numerical. Several multivariate Fisher information matrix computation currently not supported analytically, but will be steadily added.

  • add classification capabilities to design list input

Reference manual

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