Spectral Response of Water Wells to Harmonic Strain and Pressure Signals

Provides tools to calculate the theoretical hydrodynamic response of an aquifer undergoing harmonic straining or pressurization, or analyze measured responses. There are two classes of models here, designed for use with confined aquifers: (1) for sealed wells, based on the model of Kitagawa et al (2011, ), and (2) for open wells, based on the models of Cooper et al (1965, ), Hsieh et al (1987, ), Rojstaczer (1988, ), Liu et al (1989, ), and Wang et al (2018, ). Wang's solution is a special exception which allows for leakage out of the aquifer (semi-confined); it is equivalent to Hsieh's model when there is no leakage (the confined case). These models treat strain (or aquifer head) as an input to the physical system, and fluid-pressure (or water height) as the output. The applicable frequency band of these models is characteristic of seismic waves, atmospheric pressure fluctuations, and solid earth tides.

Tools to calculate the theoretical spectral response of fluid-pressure in a water well to harmonic strains (e.g., tides, long-period seismic waves).

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Models of spectral response

This code calculates the response at two types of wells: a sealed well and an open well (exposed to atmosphere).

Sealed Well

The theoretical model for a sealed well, where fluids are isolated from atmospheric pressure, responding to dilational strains from seismic waves is from Kitagawa, et al. (2011) which this package is named after.

Open Well

The first theoretical model for a sealed well responding to seimic displacements is from Cooper, et al. (1965).

This package also includes support for the models in Hsieh, et al. (1987). Rojstaczer (1988), and Liu, et al. (1989), which are based on various sources (i.e., tides, atmospheric pressure, and seismic waves).

Getting Started

You can install the package via CRAN from within the R environment:


Load the package library and take a look at the vignettes:


Installing the Development Version

Should you wish to install the development version of this software, the devtools library will be useful:



Reference manual

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3.1.0 by Andrew J. Barbour, a year ago


Report a bug at https://github.com/abarbour/kitagawa/issues

Browse source code at https://github.com/cran/kitagawa

Authors: Andrew J. Barbour [aut, cre] , Jonathan Kennel [ctb]

Documentation:   PDF Manual  

Task views: Hydrological Data and Modeling

GPL (>= 2) license

Imports Bessel, kelvin, psd

Depends on stats

Suggests dplyr, tibble, RColorBrewer, signal, testthat, knitr, rmarkdown, formatR, covr

See at CRAN