Functions for cognitive diagnosis modeling and multidimensional item response modeling
for dichotomous and polytomous item responses. This package enables the estimation of
the DINA and DINO model (Junker & Sijtsma, 2001,

If you use `CDM`

and have suggestions for improvement or have found bugs, please email me at [email protected].

The official version of `CDM`

is hosted on CRAN and may be found here.
The CRAN version can be installed from within R using:

`utils::install.packages("CDM")`

The version hosted here is the development version of `CDM`

.
The GitHub version can be installed using `devtools`

as:

`devtools::install_github("alexanderrobitzsch/CDM")`

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

----------------------- CDM NEWS -----------------------------

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

CDM package +-+-+-+ |C|D|M| +-+-+-+

```
A. Robitzsch [aut, cre], T. Kiefer [aut],
A. C. George [aut], & A. Uenlue [aut]
```

mailto: [email protected]

For reporting a bug, please always provide a reproducible R script and (if necessary) a corresponding dataset.

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

NOTE * changes in estimation algorithm in regularized latent class analysis function reglca() to stabilize estimation

DATA * included/modified datasets: --- EXAMP * included/modified examples: ---

NOTE * changed metric of regularization parameter lambda in gdina() which seems to improve estimation stability NOTE * exported utility function cdm_parameter_regularization(), cdm_calc_information_criteria(), cdm_penalty_values(), cdm_print_summary_information_criteria() FIXED * corrected output with missing entries in case of groups without observations in IRT.RMSD() (thanks to Laura Helbling)

DATA * included/modified datasets: --- EXAMP * included/modified examples: ---

NOTE * included argument 'optimizer' in gdina() which allows to use the stats::optim() function for optimization in M-step (default is optimizer='optim'). 'use_optim=TRUE' is always used for estimation of the RRUM model. This change was motivated by an application of Hamdollah Ravand. NOTE * included utility function cdm_matrixstring() FIXED * allowed items with only zero Q-matrix entries in mcdina() anf fixed a bug in reduced skill space estimation in mcdina() (thanks to Jeannot Gersner) NOTE * exported core computation function IRT_RMSD_calc_rmsd() for RMSD statistic

DATA * included/modified datasets: --- EXAMP * included/modified examples: gdina (13)

NOTE * renamed thresholding penalty functions NOTE * deleted seed argument from cdm.est.class.accuracy() function ADDED * included general simulation function sim_model() ADDED * included function IRT.classify() for computing individual classifications ADDED * included function eval_likelihood() for evaluating likelihood (and posterior) and prep_data_long_format() for saving item response matrix in long format NOTE * included corrected statistics for classification accuracy and consistency in cdm.est.class.accuracy()

DATA * included/modified datasets: --- EXAMP * included/modified examples: sim_model (1), IRT.classify (1), eval_likelihood (1)

FIXED * fixed a bug in IRT.RMSD() function for models fitted in the CDM package NOTE * speeded parts of the IRT.modelfit() function ADDED * included item discrimination indices in discrim.index() function (Henson, DiBello & Stout, 2018) NOTE * included argument 'IDI_diff' in the din.validate.qmatrix() function. Speeded this function due to referring most of the computations to Rcpp. ADDED * included cognitive diagnosis model for simultaneous identification for skills and misconceptions (Kuo et al., 2018, APM). The model is included in the gdina() function using the argument rule='SISM'.

DATA * included/modified datasets: data.timss07.G4.py, data.timss07.G4.Qdomains, data.timss11.G4.sa, data.cdm05, data.cdm06, data.cdm07, data.pisa00R.ct, data.pisa00R.cc, data.cdm08 EXAMP * included/modified examples: IRT.RMSD (3), data.timss07.G4.lee (2), data.cdm (2), data.pisa00R (1), gdina (12)

FIXED * fixed bug of computation of MD statistic in IRT.RMSD() which was recently broken NOTE * included item index in title of figures in IRT.irfprobPlot()

DATA * included/modified datasets: --- EXAMP * included/modified examples: IRT.RMSD (2)

ADDED * included regularized maximum likelihood in slca() ADDED * included option for positivity constraints of Xlambda parameter in slca() ADDED * included P-EM acceleration method in slca(), gdm(), and gdina() NOTE * avoided inversion of singular covariance matrices in gdina() by using MASS::ginv() NOTE * included several sub-datasets and different Q-matrices of the fraction subtraction dataset (see 'data.fraction') NOTE * slight changes in algorithm of higher-order GDINA model NOTE * included argument 'diag_only' in numerical_Hessian() NOTE * exported utility functions cdm_fa1(), cdm_print_summary_call(), cdm_print_summary_computation_time(), threshold operators cdm_XXX_threshold() for diverse 'XXX', cdm_fit_normal(), cdm_parameter_regularization(), cdm_penalty_values(), CDM_rbind_fill(), cdm_matrix1(), cdm_matrix2() NOTE * included derivative function numerical_Hessian_partial() ADDED * added option for monotonicity constraints in gdina() ADDED * added regularization methods in gdina(). Implemented are the penalties SCAD, lasso, ridge, SCAD-L2, truncated L1, MCP (Xu & Shang, 2017, JASA) NOTE * included argument 'freq_weights' in gdina() to disable the usage of frequency weights ADDED * included prior distributions for item parameters in gdina() function ADDED * added regularized latent class estimation (reglca(); Chen et al., 2015, JASA; Chen et al., 2017, Psychometrika) NOTE * extended option for skill space reduction in gdina() to multiple group analysis NOTE * enabled 'delta.designmatrix' argument in gdm() function which was previously ignored NOTE * disbaled PEM acceleration for HOGDINA models (not yet implemented, thanks to Hamdollah Ravand)

DATA * included/modified datasets: data.fraction3, data.fraction4, data.fraction5 EXAMP * included/modified examples: gdina (1.9, 1.10, 1.11), slca (6), reglca (1)

FIXED * fixed a bug in 'gdina' function in argument 'invariance' if a vector of item names is used (thanks to Hamdollah Ravand) FIXED * fixed the broken function 'gdina.dif' (thanks again to Hamdollah Ravand) ADDED * added EM acceleration method P-EM in function 'slca' by argument 'PEM' NOTE * included P-EM utility functions 'cdm_pen_XXX' and 'cdm_print_summary_data_frame'

DATA * included/modified datasets: --- EXAMP * included/modified examples: gdina (5.5)

NOTE * fixed a bug in 'equivalent.dina' and included an additional example (thanks to Sedat San) NOTE * moved lattice and psych packages from 'Imports' to 'Suggests'. Removed MASS and plyr packages from 'Imports'. NOTE * imported utility functions 'CDM_require_namespace' and 'CDM_rmvnorm'. FIXED * fixed a bug in 'gdina' for Q-matrices with only one skill (thanks to Matthew Madison)

DATA * included/modified datasets: --- EXAMP * included/modified examples: equivalent.dina (3)

ADDED * included S3 method 'IRT.frequencies' for calculation of observed and expected frequencies of univariate and bivariate distributions (suggested by Rudolf Debelak)

DATA * included/modified datasets: --- EXAMP * included/modified examples: IRT.frequencies (1)

NOTE * internal restructure of 'gdina' and 'gdm' functions

DATA * included/modified datasets: --- EXAMP * included/modified examples: ---

NOTE * corrected a wrong specification in the Rd manual of 'skillspace.hierarchy' (Example 2; thanks to Peida Zhan) FIXED * corrected calculations of MD and MAD statistics in 'IRT.RMSD' FIXED * fixed a bug in computation of 'itemfit.sx2' in case of cells with frequencies of zero (thanks to Carmen Koehler)

DATA * included/modified datasets: --- EXAMP * included/modified examples: skillspace.hierarchy (2)

FIXED * fixed warnings in calculation of standard errors in 'gdina' and 'gdina.wald' (thanks to Andres Alberto Burga Leon)

DATA * included/modified datasets: --- EXAMP * included/modified examples: ---

ADDED * included function CDM::IRT.RMSD which computed group-wise item fit. The RMSD item fit statistic was denoted as RMSEA in previous publications and is internally computed by the CDM::itemfit.rmsea function in the CDM package. ADDED * included chi square statistic and MAD statistic (mean absolute deviation) of item fit in CDM::IRT.RMSD NOTE * cleaned code in function 'WaldTest' a bit (thanks to suggestions of Michael Chirico) NOTE * added links to recently released GDINA package in R. Included Example 1d for fitting a GDINA model with GDINA::GDINA.

DATA * included/modified datasets: --- EXAMP * included/modified examples: IRT.RMSD (1), gdina (1d)

NOTE * extended 'item_by_group' function which can now handle partial set of group-specific items ADDED * included option for a subset of invariant items in multiple group estimation of GDINA model in 'gdina' (requested by Hamid Bahrami) FIXED * fixed a bug in setting boundaries for guessing and slipping parameters in 'din' (thanks to Jill-Jen Vie) NOTE * reference to new Journal of Statistical Software George et al. article in the CITATION file and the CDM manual

DATA * included/modified datasets: --- EXAMP * included/modified examples: item_by_group (1), gdina (5)

FIXED * changed the method of standard error calculation in 'gdina' function. It seems that previous CDM version produced overestimated standard errors (thanks to Xue-Lan Qiu). The improved calculation is now the default specified as the argument 'se_version=1'. The behavior of older CDM versions can be obtained with 'se_version=0'.

DATA * included/modified datasets: --- EXAMP * included/modified examples: ---

NOTE * changed the way of calculating numerical derivatives in 'numerical_Hessian' NOTE * included utility function 'abs_approx' for a differentiable function approximation (and its derivative 'abs_approx_D1') of absolute value function NOTE * added argument 'append' in function 'osink' NOTE * included a utility function 'summary_sink' which sinks summary output of a method into a file NOTE * included utility function 'deltaMethod' for nonlinear transformations of parameters NOTE * included utility function 'item_by_group' which extends a dataset of item responses and a grouping variable to an extended dataset of group-specific item responses ADDED * added sequential GDINA model for polytomous item responses (Ma & de la Torre, 2016, BJMSP) in 'gdina' function. NOTE * included argument 'invariance' in 'gdina' which allows specification of non-invariant item parameters across multiple groups (see ?gdina, Example 5) NOTE * changed number of M-steps in 'slca' in default to 10 iterations (msteps=10)

DATA * included/modified datasets: data.cdm04 EXAMP * included/modified examples: abs_approx (1), summary_sink (1), deltaMethod (1), item_by_group (1), gdina (5,11)

NOTE * changed argument structure of 'numerical_hessian' NOTE * included maximum likelihood estimation method for GDINA models (method='ML') which seems to be more stable when method='ULS' (or 'WLS') has a bad convergence behavior. Now, the GDINA function switches to ML estimation if the RRUM model is used (thanks to a correspondence with Thomas Eckes). NOTE * added an example of fitting (data.cdm, Example 1) the reduced RUM model in the CDM package (see the recent Chiu et al., IJT paper) NOTE * changed default value of 'max.increment' argument in 'gdina' function to .3 FIXED * fixed a bug in 'gdina.dif' (thanks to Sinem Senfarah)

DATA * included/modified datasets: data.cdm03 EXAMP * included/modified examples: data.cdm (1)

FIXED * fixed a bug in 'itemfit.sx2' for fitted objects in TAM NOTE * slightly changed output of 'print' methods NOTE * changed argument 'rdigits' to 'digits' in 'summary' method if necessary NOTE * included utility functions 'osink' and 'csink' for writing output of 'summary' into a file NOTE * allowed argument 'file' in 'summary' method for objects of class 'gdina', 'gdm', 'mcdina' and 'slca' ADDED * included function 'numerical_Hessian' for a numerical evaluation of the Hessian matrix

DATA * included/modified datasets: --- EXAMP * included/modified examples: osink (1), numerical_Hessian (1)

NOTE * extended Wald test for item fit 'gdina.wald' for DINO models. In addition, an effect size of approximation ('uwgtdist' and 'wgtdist') is included NOTE * cleaned namespace file and defined imported functions in a more explicit way ADDED * added a S3 method 'IRT.parameterTable' ADDED * added a utility function 'WaldTest' for performing Wald tests

DATA * included/modified datasets: --- EXAMP * included/modified examples: gdina.wald (1), data.ecpe (1),

NOTE * included optional lower and upper bounds for estimation of guessing and slipping parameters in 'din' (arguments 'guess.min', 'guess.max', 'slip.min', 'slip.max') (requested by Kevin Carl Santos)

DATA * included/modified datasets: --- EXAMP * included/modified examples: ---

NOTE * extended 'din' and 'gdina' functions for items with more than five measured attributes per item (requested by Alvaro Artavia Medrano) NOTE * included 'converged' value for all models indicating whether maximum number of iterations was reached (suggested by an anonymous reviewer)

DATA * included/modified datasets: --- EXAMP * included/modified examples: ---

FIXED * fixed a bug in function 'sequential.items'

DATA * included/modified datasets: --- EXAMP * included/modified examples: ---

NOTE * included t and p values in 'IRT.jackknife.gdina' FIXED * fixed bugs in 'summary.gdina' and 'gdina' due to computational problems in standard error calculation

DATA * included/modified datasets: --- EXAMP * included/modified examples: ---

FIXED * fixed the ignorance of the 'centered.latent' argument
in the 'gdm' function
ADDED * included S3 methods 'IRT.expectedCounts' for extracting
expected counts and 'IRT.data' for extracting the used
item response dataset
ADDED * included general plotting function for item response
functions 'IRT.irfprobPlot'. This function can be used
with both lattice and graphics packages.

ADDED * included S3 method 'predict' (and function 'IRT.predict')
for computing expected values and residuals for
fitted models in CDM

NOTE * added attributes group and weights to 'IRT.data' value
NOTE * added a summary method for 'IRT.compareModels'
NOTE * changed output of posterior in 'gdina'
ADDED * included function 'IRT.repDesign' for constructing
replicate designs
ADDED * added arguments for fixing and initial parameters in
'gdina' function
NOTE * added parameter table and matrix of polychoric correlations
among skills in 'gdina' output
ADDED * added S3 method 'IRT.jackknife' and an initial version
for models of class 'gdina'
ADDED * added function 'IRT.derivedParameter' for replication methods
for derived parameters based on objects of class 'IRT.jackknife'

DATA * included/modified datasets: data.timss11.G4.AUT, data.timss11.G4.AUT.part EXAMP * included/modified examples: IRT.expectedCounts (1,2), IRT.irfprobPlot (1,2), predict (1,2), IRT.data (1), IRT.repDesign (1,2), gdina (1), IRT.jackknife (1,2)

NOTE * included confidence intervals S3 method for din objects FIXED * fixed a bug in printing BIC for 'gdina' objects NOTE * included S3 method 'IRT.modelfit' for assessment of absolute model fit NOTE * included S3 method 'IRT.se' for computation of standard errors NOTE * included S3 method 'IRT.IC' for extracting information criteria and 'IRT.compareModels' for model comparisons NOTE * included object names in 'anova' methods for CDM objects NOTE * included S3 method 'IRT.anova' NOTE * removed MX2 statistic from 'modelfit.cor' function

DATA * included/modified datasets: --- EXAMP * included/modified examples: vcov.din (1), IRT.modelfit (1), IRT.IC (1), IRT.compareModels (1), anova (1,2)

NOTE * included argument for iteration progress in 'gdm'
and 'slca'
NOTE * included value call in 'din', 'gdina', 'gdm',
'mcdina' and 'slca'
NOTE * changed print method in 'din' and included print method
for 'gdina', 'gdm' and 'slca'
NOTE * added anova and coef method for 'slca' function
ADDED * added asymptotic covariance matrix estimation S3 method
'vcov' for objects of class din
ADDED * added computation of entropy of whole test and items in
function 'entropy.lca' (Asparouhov & Muthen, 2014)
NOTE * included a summary function for 'cdi.kli'
NOTE * included a function 'skillspace.full' for creating a
skill space for dichotomous skills
ADDED * included a plot S3 method for 'gdm' and 'slca'

NOTE * corrected a bug in person value of 'gdm': missing standard
errors of EAPs of multiple dimensions are now included
ADDED * included person fit appropriateness statistic (Liu et al., 2009)
ADDED * included S3 methods 'IRT.likelihood', 'IRT.personfit',
'IRT.irfprob' and 'IRT.factor.scores' for objects of classes
din, gdina, gdm, slca and mcdina
NOTE * included person parameter estimation (classification) for
'slca' and 'mcdina' functions

DATA * included/modified datasets: --- EXAMP * included/modified examples: data.dcm (1), modelfit.cor (2), vcov-CDM (1), entropy.lca (1,2,3), personfit.appropriateness (1,2), slca (1), IRT.likelihood (1), IRT.irfprob (1), IRT.factor.scores (1)

NOTE * speeded itemfit.sx2 a bit NOTE * included output value 'pattern' in multiple group GDINA models (requested by Sung Eun Kim) NOTE * included adjusted mean absolute deviation of Q3 statistics (MADaQ3) in modelfit.cor.din EXAMP * included examples for running CDMs in mirt package o DINA model ('data.dcm', Model 1) o additive GDINA model ('data.dcm', Model 6)

DATA * included/modified datasets: --- EXAMP * included/modified examples: modelfit.cor (1), din.deterministic, itemfit.sx2 (1), data.dcm (1,6)

ADDED * included structured latent class analysis for polytomous data ('slca')

DATA * included/modified datasets: --- EXAMP * included/modified examples: slca (1,2,3,4,5)

NOTE * included an argument save.devmin in 'gdina' for more parsimonious savings of output values to avoid working memory overflow for large datasets NOTE * included effect size of differential item functioning in gdina model (included in 'gdina.dif') FIXED * fixed a bug in itemfit.sx2

DATA * included/modified datasets: --- EXAMP * included/modified examples: gdina.dif (1)

FIXED * fixed a bug when printing objects of class 'din' NOTE * allowed vector input of item response pattern in 'plot.din' NOTE * disabled argument log.file in 'summary.din' NOTE * included random initial parameter values in 'din' and 'gdina' NOTE * changed some settings in plot.din

DATA * included/modified datasets: --- EXAMP * included/modified examples: din (1), gdina (1), plot.din

NOTE * changed output in summary.gdina a bit (fixed a bug for
the output of skill probabilities)
NOTE * included the argument 'avoid.zeroprobs' in gdina function
to avoid zero probabilities of skill classes and inversion
of singular matrices

NOTE * fixed problems in itemfit.sx2 for empty cells (thanks to
Balal Izanloo)
ADDED * included a Wald test for the GDINA model (gdina.wald)
ADDED * included assessment of item-wise differential item functioning
in the GDINA model (gdina.dif)
FIXED * removed minor bug in summary.gdina
FIXED * fixed a bug with singular design matrix in skill space reduction

ADDED * included calculation of polychoric correlation in summary.gdina
and an additional function skill.polychor
NOTE * removed parallel plot form plot.din
FIXED * fixed a crucial bug for in the multidimensional GDMs with item slope
parameter estimation
ADDED * included function 'mcdina' for estimating the multiple group multiple
choice DINA (MCDINA) model with polytomous attributes

DATA * included/modified datasets: data.cdm01, data.cdm02 EXAMP * included/modified examples: data.ecpe, gdina.wald (1), gdina.dif (1), din (7), mcdina (1,2,3)

ADDED * included cognitive diagnostic indices based on Kullback-Leibler information ('cdi.kli') NOTE * changed NAMESPACE and DESCRIPTION files due to a change in Rcpp NOTE * included non-exported Rcpp files for calculating individual likelihood and posterior distribution for polytomous items and multiple groups

DATA * included/modified datasets: --- EXAMP * included/modified examples: cdi.kli (1)

FIXED * fixed a bug in polytomous GDINA models with only one skill NOTE * included value 'zeroprob.skillclasses' in skillspace.hierarchy NOTE * included a more efficient skill space reduction method in gdina: using the argument 'reduced.skillspace.method', the new implemented method is now the default ADDED * included data transformation function 'sequential.items' for constructing dichtomous pseudo items from polytomous items for estimation sequential item response models

DATA * included/modified datasets: data.sda6, data.timss03.G8.su, data.timss07.G4.lee EXAMP * included/modified examples: gdm (10)

FIXED * fixed a bug when inverting a singular matrix in standard error calculation in gdina function (thanks to Hsin-Hao Chen) NOTE * included conditional item probabilities in gdina output NOTE * included gdina plot function (thanks to a discussion with Hamdollah Ravand) FIXED * fixed a bug in summary.dina if data without column names is provided (thanks to Hu Jinxiang) FIXED * removed a bug in gdina function which occured sometimes due to division by zero (thanks to Hu Jinxiang) FIXED * fixed a bug in cdm.est.class.accuracy for GDINA models (thanks to Hamdollah Ravand) FIXED * fixed some instable numerical behavior for higher order GDINA models (thanks to Ed Merkle) FIXED * fixed a bug in calculating number of estimated parameters for 'din' function in case of skill classes with zero probability (thanks to Juergen Gross) NOTE * added some explanations in the manual of 'modelfit.cor' ADDED * included S-X2 item fit statistic ('itemfit.sx2') accompanied with a summary and a plot method ADDED * included marginal skill classification reliability in 'cdm.est.class.accuracy' function ADDED * implemented significance tests in modelfit.cor and modelfit.cor.din ADDED * included jackknife estimation of standard errors and bias corrected estimators in modelfit.cor.din NOTE * speeded function 'modelfit.cor' by moving some parts of the code to Rcpp NOTE * included warnings in case of nonconvergence in gdina function (thanks to a dataset provided by Hamdollah Ravand) NOTE * slight change of algorithm for skill space reduction which seems to improve convergence behavior ADDED * included a function for skill space approximation ADDED * included a function for calculation reduced skill spaces if hierarchies among skills exist ('skillspace.hierarchy') ADDED * included generalized distance discriminating method and a function for computing ideal response patterns

DATA * included/modified datasets: data.hr, data.melab, data.jang, data.dtmr EXAMP * included/modified examples: gdm (4,5,6), gdina (8,9), sim.din (3), sim.gdina (2,3), itemfit.sx2 (1,2), din(6)

DATA * included two datasets 'data.dcm' and 'data.ecpe' DATA * eliminated a recoding error in data.Students

NOTE * worked on slight improvements of computation time in din and gdina DATA * included multiple group dataset 'data.mg' NOTE * cleaned CDM manual (thanks to Michaela Mayr)

NOTE * accelerated rowMaxs function ADDED * included Q-matrix validation function (de la Torre, 2008) ADDED * included joint maximum likelihood estimation and classification function for the mixed DINA/DINO model -> function din.deterministic EXAMP * included another example (based on attribute vectors) in sim.din function ADDED * included polytomous GDINA model (Chen & de la Torre, 2013)

FIXED * fixed a bug in gdm in multiple group estimation: group labeling was incorrect and is now included in output group.stat and displayed in summary.gdm NOTE * improved convergence behavior for multiple group analysis NOTE * accelerated calculation in gdm: skillspace reduction

NOTE * allowed for centering of intercepts and slopes in gdm ADDED * included satured skill distribution estimation in gdm FIXED * fixed a bug in the calculation of RMSEA itemfit, although is not clear if the correct formula is used FIXED * fixed a bug in gdm with varying number of item categories (thanks to Artur Pokropek) ADDED * included the multidimensional latent class IRT model (Bartolucci, 2007) in gdm (skillspace="est") NOTE * speeded calculation of modelfit.cor

FIXED * eliminated a bug in GDINA function for link="log"
ADDED * included the parametrization of the reduced RUM model in gdina
ADDED * worked on higher order GDINA model which has the argument
HOGDINA in gdina. Now there is dependency on the 'fa' factor
analysis function in the psych package.
ADDED * included log-likelihood extractor functions
ADDED * included group-wise calculation of RMSEA statistics
see itemfit.rmsea and the gdm output (thanks to Artur Pokropek)
FIXED * (hopefully) fixed a bug in gdm function with differing number of
item categories (thanks to Artur Pokropek)

NOTE * use frequency patterns in gdm to speed up calculations
for large data sets (argument 'use.freqpatt' in gdm function)
NOTE * included more than one step in gdm function
- arguments msteps (set to 8 M steps as the default) and convM

ADDED * included the general diagnostic model (function gdm) ADDED * included a function for calculating equivalent skill classes for the DINA/DINO model ADDED * modelfit and anova functions are also accessible for the GDM FIXED * fixed a bug in the function for classification accuracy ADDED * included the RMSEA item fit index FIXED * fixed a bug in gdina estimation ADDED * included coef extractor function

ADDED * included a model fit function modelfit.cor(.din) for the comparison of observed and expected correlations FIXED * fixed a bug in the gdina function when applying the model with one skill

ADDED * allow for user specified reduced skill space designs ADDED * included tetrachoric correlations in summary.gdina function ADDED * handled zero probability classes in gdina function ADDED * allowed for output and input of attribute patterns in sim.din function NOTE * included relative deviance change as convergence criterion in din function ADDED * included function for determining a statistically equivalent DINA model (von Davier, 2013) NOTE * changed structure of din summary ADDED * included an anova function ADDED * included a function for estimating classification reliability FIXED * fixed a bug in gdina function when creating design matrices

ADDED * implemented the latent skill space reduction according to Xu and von Davier (2008) FIXED * fixed a bug in calculation of estimated parameters FIXED * fixed a bug in IDI calculation FIXED * corrected MLE based classification in case of latent classes with a priori spceified zero probability in the din function (yet to be done in gdina) FIXED * fixed a bug in standard error calculation in gdina NOTE * speed improvements in din and gdina function - included a C function for calculating the posterior distribution NOTE * check of admissible rule in gdina ADDED * include rule "GDINA2" and "GDINA1" ("GDINA1" is equivalent to "ACDM") ADDED * Simulation function for the GDINA model included ADDED * multiple group gdina function for estimation of generalized DINA models (de la Torre, 2011) ADDED * included new function summary.gdina

NOTE * highest argument deleted from print.din method NOTE * new argument for summary.din n.skill.classes NOTE * skill pattern probabilities deleted from print.din NOTE * skill pattern summary replaced by n most frequent skill classes in summary.din NOTE * (argument ask=TRUE in summary.din placed by overwrite=FALSE) NOTE * use a different item discrimination index (Lee et al., 2012) NOTE * remove GDINA estimation from this package version because it is in an experimental status -> gdina will be included in CDM >= 1.1-1 NOTE * new optional attribute for q-matrix specification list of skill labels NOTE * changed ouput in din function -> pattern, like and posterior are sorted according to the original input data frame FIXED * remove a bug for models with only attribute ADDED * new argument for din method zeroprob.skillclasses ADDED * new argument for din method equal.itempars NOTE * new arguments for summary.din method log.file and ask FIXED * minor bug fixes in print.din method NOTE * replace internal method rowProds with faster rowProds2 NOTE * option for writing an output file of model results included in function summary.din

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