Covariate Balancing Propensity Score

Implements the covariate balancing propensity score (CBPS) proposed by Imai and Ratkovic (2014) . The propensity score is estimated such that it maximizes the resulting covariate balance as well as the prediction of treatment assignment. The method, therefore, avoids an iteration between model fitting and balance checking. The package also implements optimal CBPS from Fan et al. (2016) < https://imai.fas.harvard.edu/research/CBPStheory.html>, several extensions of the CBPS beyond the cross-sectional, binary treatment setting. They include the CBPS for longitudinal settings so that it can be used in conjunction with marginal structural models from Imai and Ratkovic (2015) , treatments with three- and four-valued treatment variables, continuous-valued treatments from Fong, Hazlett, and Imai (2018) , propensity score estimation with a large number of covariates from Ning, Peng, and Imai (2018) , and the situation with multiple distinct binary treatments administered simultaneously. In the future it will be extended to other settings including the generalization of experimental and instrumental variable estimates.


Implements the covariate balancing propensity score (CBPS) proposed by Imai and Ratkovic (2014). The propensity score is estimated such that it maximizes the resulting covariate balance as well as the prediction of treatment assignment. The method, therefore, avoids an iteration between model fitting and balance checking. The package also implements several extensions of the CBPS beyond the cross-sectional, binary treatment setting. The current version implements the CBPS for longitudinal settings so that it can be used in conjunction with marginal structural models from Imai and Ratkovic (2015), treatments with three- and four-valued treatment variables, continuous-valued treatments from [Fong, Hazlett, and Imai (2015)] (http://imai.princeton.edu/research/files/CBGPS.pdf), and the situation with multiple distinct binary treatments administered simultaneously. In the future it will be extended to other settings including the generalization of experimental and instrumental variable estimates. Recently add the optimal CBPS which chooses the optimal balancing function and results in doubly robust and efficient estimator for the treatment effect.

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Reference manual

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install.packages("CBPS")

0.20 by Christian Fong, 4 months ago


Browse source code at https://github.com/cran/CBPS


Authors: Christian Fong [aut, cre] , Marc Ratkovic [aut] , Kosuke Imai [aut] , Chad Hazlett [ctb] , Xiaolin Yang [ctb] , Sida Peng [ctb]


Documentation:   PDF Manual  


GPL (>= 2) license


Depends on MASS, MatchIt, nnet, numDeriv, glmnet

Suggests testthat


Suggested by WeightIt, cobalt.

Enhanced by optmatch.


See at CRAN