Nonparametric Bounds for the Average Causal Effect Due to Balke and Pearl and Extensions

Implementation of the nonparametric bounds for the average causal effect under an instrumental variable model by Balke and Pearl (Bounds on Treatment Effects from Studies with Imperfect Compliance, JASA, 1997, 92, 439, 1171-1176). The package can calculate bounds for a binary outcome, a binary treatment/phenotype, and an instrument with either 2 or 3 categories. The package implements bounds for situations where these 3 variables are measured in the same dataset (trivariate data) or where the outcome and instrument are measured in one study and the treatment/phenotype and instrument are measured in another study (bivariate data).

Build Status Coverage status CRAN status RStudio_CRAN_mirror_downloads_badge

R package implementing the nonparametric bounds for the average causal effect of Balke and Pearl, JASA, 1997.


Install the released version of bpbounds from CRAN:


Or install the development version from GitHub with:

# install.packages("devtools") # uncomment if devtools not installed

To update the development version of the package, simply run this command again.

Shiny App

There is a Shiny app demonstrating the package at:

Package website

The helpfiles and vignette are shown at:


Tom Palmer (maintainer, [email protected]), Roland Ramsahai, Vanessa Didelez, Nuala Sheehan


bpbounds 0.1.3

  • Added Nuala's ORCID to DESCRIPTION.

bpbounds 0.1.2

  • Added Roland's ORCID to DESCRIPTION.

bpbounds 0.1.1

  • Added runExample() to launch the Shiny App included in ./inst/shiny-examples/myapp .

bpbounds 0.1.0

Reference manual

It appears you don't have a PDF plugin for this browser. You can click here to download the reference manual.


0.1.4 by Tom Palmer, 2 years ago

Report a bug at

Browse source code at

Authors: Tom Palmer [aut, cre] , Roland Ramsahai [aut] , Vanessa Didelez [aut] , Nuala Sheehan [aut]

Documentation:   PDF Manual  

GPL-3 license

Imports methods

Suggests dplyr, testthat, knitr, rmarkdown, tidyr, shiny

See at CRAN