Deficit Index (DI)

A set of utilities for calculating the Deficit (frailty) Index (DI) in gerontological studies. The deficit index was first proposed by Arnold Mitnitski and Kenneth Rockwood and represents a proxy measure of aging and also can be served as a sensitive predictor of survival. For more information, see (i)"Accumulation of Deficits as a Proxy Measure of Aging" by Arnold B. Mitnitski et al. (2001), The Scientific World Journal 1, ; (ii) "Frailty, fitness and late-life mortality in relation to chronological and biological age" by Arnold B Mitnitski et al. (2001), BMC Geriatrics2002 2(1), .




dd <- data.frame(subj=seq(1:100), var1=rbinom(100,1,.5), var2=rbinom(100,1,.5), var3=rbinom(100,1,.5))
ddi <- di(dd, c("var1", "var2", "var3"))


Arnold B. Mitnitski, Alexander J. Mogilner, and Kenneth Rockwood, “Accumulation of Deficits as a Proxy Measure of Aging,” TheScientificWorldJOURNAL, vol. 1, pp. 323-336, 2001. doi:10.1100/tsw.2001.58


New for version 1.1.4

  • Version released.
  • Warning "Note: break used in wrong context: no loop is visible" fixed.
  • Vignette updated.

Reference manual

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1.1.4 by Ilya Y. Zhbannikov, a year ago

Browse source code at

Authors: Ilya Y. Zhbannikov [aut, cre]

Documentation:   PDF Manual  

GPL-3 license

Imports scales

Suggests knitr, rmarkdown

See at CRAN