Tests whether a set of counts fit a given expected ratio. For example, a genetic cross might be expected to produce four types in the relative frequencies of 9:3:3:1. To see whether a set of observed counts fits this expectation, one can examine all possible outcomes with xmulti() or a random sample of them with xmonte() and find the probability of an observation deviating from the expectation by at least as much as the observed. As a measure of deviation from the expected, one can use the log-likelihood ratio, the multinomial probability, or the classic chi-square statistic. A histogram of the test statistic can also be plotted and compared with the asymptotic curve.