Accurate Floating Point Sums and Products

Most of the time floating point arithmetic does approximately the right thing. When adding sums or having products of numbers that greatly differ in magnitude, the floating point arithmetic may be incorrect. This package implements the Kahan (1965) sum , Neumaier (1974) sum , pairwise-sum (adapted from 'NumPy', See Castaldo (2008) for a discussion of accuracy), and arbitrary precision sum (adapted from the fsum in 'Python' ; Shewchuk (1997) <>). In addition, products are changed to long double precision for accuracy, or changed into a log-sum for accuracy.


Reference manual

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0.4 by Matthew Fidler, a year ago

Browse source code at

Authors: Matthew Fidler [aut, cre, cph] , Raymond Hettinger [cph, aut] , Jonathan Shewchuk [cph, aut] , Julian Taylor [cph, aut] , Nathaniel Smith [cph, aut] , NumPy Team [cph] , Python Team [cph]

Documentation:   PDF Manual  

GPL (>= 2) license

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Imported by RxODE, ciuupi2.

See at CRAN