Last updated on 2019-07-15 by Roger Bivand

Base R includes many functions that can be used for reading, visualising, and analysing spatial data. The focus in this view is on "geographical" spatial data, where observations can be identified with geographical locations, and where additional information about these locations may be retrieved if the location is recorded with care.

Base R functions are complemented by contributed packages,
some of which are on CRAN, and others are still in development.
One location is Github. Some key packages
including sf and stars are grouped under
r-spatial, others including
raster under rspatial.
Maintenance of the sp is continuing here:

Another set of locations for the development and maintenance of packages on R-Forge, which lists "Spatial Data and Statistics" projects in its project tree. Information on R-spatial packages was until 2016 posted on the R-Forge rspatial project website, including a visualisation gallery.

The contributed packages address two broad areas: moving spatial data into and out of R, and analysing spatial data in R.

The R-SIG-Geo mailing-list is a good place to begin for obtaining help and discussing questions about both accessing data, and analysing it. The mailing list is a good place to search for information about relevant courses. Further information about courses may be found under the "Events" tab of this blog.

There are a number of contributed tutorials and introductions; a recent one is Introduction to visualising spatial data in R by Robin Lovelace and James Cheshire.

The packages in this view can be roughly structured into the following topics. If you think that some package is missing from the list, please fork the task view repository and provide a pull request in ctv format for the ctv/Spatial.ctv file.

Because many of the packages importing and using spatial data have had to include objects of storing data and functions for visualising it, an initiative is in progress to construct shared classes and plotting functions for spatial data.

Complementary initiatives are ongoing to support better handling of geographic metadata in R.

**Spatial data - general**

- The sp package provides classes and methods for dealing with spatial data and is discussed in a note in R News.
- sf is a newer package now on CRAN, and is being
actively developed here:
r-spatial/sf , providing Simple Features for R, in compliance with the OGC Simple Feature standard. The development of the package is being supported by the R Consortium. It provides simple features access for vector data, and as such is a modern implementation and standardization of parts of sp. It is documented in an R Journal article. - stars is being actively developed here:
rspatial/stars , and supported by the R Consortium; it provides for spatiotemporal data in the form of dense arrays. - stplanr provides a "SpatialLinesNetwork" class based on objects defined in sp and igraph that can be used for routing analysis within R. Another network package is shp2graph.
- The spacetime package extends the shared classes defined in sp for spatio-temporal data (see Spatio-Temporal Data in R).
- The rcosmo package provides simple access to spherical and HEALPix data. It extends standard dataframes for HEALPix-type data.
- inlmisc has followed on from Grid2Polygons and converts a spatial object from class SpatialGridDataFrame to SpatialPolygonsDataFrame among many other possibilities.
- maptools provides conversion functions between PBSmapping and spatstat and sp classes, in addition to maps databases and sp classes.

**Raster data**

- raster package is a major extension of spspatial data classes to virtualise access to large rasters, permitting large objects to be analysed, and extending the analytical tools available for both raster and vector data. Used with rasterVis, it can also provide enhanced visualisation and interaction.
- stars provides for spatiotemporal data in the form of dense arrays, with space and time being array dimensions. Examples include socio-economic or demographic data, environmental variables monitored at fixed stations, time series of satellite images with multiple spectral bands, spatial simulations, and climate model results.
- spatial.tools package contains spatial functions meant to enhance the core functionality of the raster package, including a parallel processing engine for use with rasters.

**Geographic metadata**

- geometa provides classes and methods to write geographic
metadata following the ISO and OGC metadata standards (ISO 19115, 19110,
19119) and export it as XML (ISO 19139) for later publication into
metadata catalogues. Reverserly, geometa provides a way to read ISO 19139
metadata into R. The package extends sf to provide GML (ISO 19136)
representation of geometries. geometa is under active development on
eblondel/geometa - ncdf4 provides read and write functions for handling metadata (CF conventions) in the self-described NetXDF format.

**Reading and writing spatial data - rgdal**

Maps may be vector-based or raster-based. The rgdal package provides bindings to GDAL (Geospatial Data Abstraction Library)-supported raster formats and OGR-supported vector formats. It contains functions to write raster and vector files in supported formats. Formats supported by GDAL/OGR include both OGC standard data formats (e.g. GeoJSON) and proprietary formats (e.g. ESRI Shapefile). The package also provides PROJ.4 projection support for vector objects (this site provides searchable online PROJ.4 representations of projections). Affine and similarity transformations on sp objects may be made using functions in the vec2dtransf package. The Windows and Mac OSX CRAN binaries of rgdal include subsets of possible data source drivers; if others are needed, use other conversion utilities, or install from source against a version of GDAL with the required drivers.

** Reading and writing spatial data - data formats**

Other packages provide facilities to read and write spatial data, dealing with open standard formats or proprietary formats.

*OGC Standard Data formats*

*Well-Known Text (WKT) / Well-Known Binary (WKB):*These standards are part of the OGC Simple Feature specification. Both WKT/WKB formats are supported by sf package that implements the whole OGC Simple Feature specification in R. Apart from the sf package, the rgeos package provides functions for reading and writing well-known text (WKT) geometry. Package wkb package provides functions for reading and writing well-known binary (WKB) geometry.*GeoJSON:*An rOpenSci blog entry described a GeoJSON-centred approach to reading GeoJSON and WKT data. GeoJSON can be written and read using rgdal, and WKT by rgeos. The entry lists geojson, geojsonio, geoaxe and lawn among others.*Geographic Markup Language (GML):*GML format can be read and writen with rgdal. Additional GML native reader and writer is provided by geometa model with bindings to the sf classes, for extension of geographic metadata with GML data and metadata elements (GML 3.2.1 and 3.3) and interfacing OGC web-services in ows4R package*NetCDF files:*ncdf4 or RNetCDF may be used.

*Proprietary Data Formats*

*ESRI formats:*maps (with mapdata and mapproj) provides access to the same kinds of geographical databases as S. maptools and shapefiles read and write ESRI ArcGIS/ArcView shapefiles.*Others:*maptools package provides helper functions for writing map polygon files to be read by*WinBUGS*,*Mondrian*, and the tmap command in*Stata*. The gmt package gives a simple interface between GMT map-making software and R.

**Reading and writing spatial data - GIS Software connectors**

*PostGIS:*The rpostgis package provides additional functions to the RPostgreSQL package to interface R with a 'PostGIS'-enabled database, as well as convenient wrappers to common 'PostgreSQL' queries. It is documented in an R Journal article. postGIStools package provides functions to convert geometry and 'hstore' data types from 'PostgreSQL' into standard R objects, as well as to simplify the import of R data frames (including spatial data frames) into 'PostgreSQL'. sf also provides an R interface to Postgis, for both reading and writing, throuh GDAL.*GRASS:*Integration with version 7.* of the leading open source GIS, GRASS, is provided in CRAN package rgrass7, using rgdal for exchanging data. For GRASS 6.*, use spgrass6.*SAGA:*RSAGA is a similar shell-based wrapper for SAGA commands.*Quantum GIS (QGIS):*QGIS2 was supported by RQGIS. QGIS3 is supported byr-spatial/RQGIS3 , which establishes an interface between R and QGIS, i.e. it allows the user to access QGIS functionalities from the R console. It achieves this by using the QGIS Python API.*ArcGIS:*RPyGeo is a wrapper for Python access to the ArcGIS GeoProcessor

**Interfaces to Spatial Web-Services**

Some R packages focused on providing interfaces to web-services and web tools in support of spatial data management. Here follows a first tentative (non-exhaustive) list:

- ows4R is a new package that intends to provide an R interface
to OGC standard Web-Services. It is in active development at
eblondel/ows4R and currently support interfaces to the Web Feature Service (WFS) for vector data access, with binding to the sf package, and the Catalogue Service (CSW) for geographic metadata discovery and management (including transactions), with binding to the geometa package. - geosapi is an R client for the GeoServer REST API, an open source implementation used widely for serving spatial data.
- geonapi provides an interface to the GeoNetwork legacy API, an opensource catalogue for managing geographic metadata.

**Specific geospatial data sources of interest**

- rnaturalearth package facilitates interaction with Natural Earth map data. It includes functions to download a wealth of Natural Earth vector and raster data, including cultural (e.g., country boundaries, airports, roads, railroads) and physical (e.g., coastline, lakes, glaciates areas) datasets.
- Modern country boundaries are provided at 2 resolutions by rworldmap along with functions to join and map tabular data referenced by country names or codes. Chloropleth and bubble maps are supported and general functions to work on user supplied maps (see A New R package for Mapping Global Data. Higher resolution country borders are available from the linked package rworldxtra. Historical country boundaries (1946-2012) can be obtained from the cshapes.
- marmap package is designed for downloading, plotting and manipulating bathymetric and topographic data in R. It allows to query the ETOPO1 bathymetry and topography database hosted by the NOAA, use simple latitude-longitude-depth data in ascii format, and take advantage of the advanced plotting tools available in R to build publication-quality bathymetric maps (see the PLOS paper).
- maptools provides an interface to GSHHS shoreline databases.
- The UScensus2000 suite of packages (UScensus2000cdp, UScensus2000tract) makes the use of data from the 2000 US Census more convenient.
- The cancensus package provides access to Statistics Canada's Census data with the option to retrieve all data as spatial data.
- An important data set, Guerry's "Moral Statistics of France", has been made available in the Guerry package, which provides data and maps and examples designed to contribute to the integration of multivariate and spatial analysis.
- rgbif package is used to access Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) occurence data
- geonames is an interface to the www.geonames.org service.
- OpenStreetMap gives access to open street map raster images, and osmar provides infrastructure to access OpenStreetMap data from different sources, to work with the data in common R manner, and to convert data into available infrastructure provided by existing R packages.
- tidycensus provides access to US Census Bureau data in a tidy format, including the option to bind the data spatially on import.
- tigris provides access to cartographic elements provided by the US Census Bureau TIGER, including cartographic boundaries, roads, and water.

A number of packages dedicated to spatial data handling have been written using sp classes.

**Data processing - general**

- rgdal and maptools. The rgeos package provides an interface to topology functions for sp objects using GEOS.
- raster package introduces many GIS methods that now permit much to be done with spatial data without having to use GIS in addition to R.
- The gdalUtils package provides wrappers for the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL) Utilities.
- gdistance, provides functions to calculate distances and routes on geographic grids. geosphere permits computations of distance and area to be carried out on spatial data in geographical coordinates. cshapes package provides functions for calculating distance matrices (see Mapping and Measuring Country Shapes).
- spsurvey provides a range of sampling functions.
- The trip package extends sp classes to permit the accessing and manipulating of spatial data for animal tracking.
- spcosa provides spatial coverage sampling and random sampling from compact geographical strata.
- magclass offers a data class for increased interoperability working with spatial-temporal data together with corresponding functions and methods (conversions, basic calculations and basic data manipulation). The class distinguishes between spatial, temporal and other dimensions to facilitate the development and interoperability of tools build for it. Additional features are name-based addressing of data and internal consistency checks (e.g. checking for the right data order in calculations).
- taRifx is a collection of utility and convenience functions, and some interesting spatial functions.
- geoaxeallows users to split 'geospatial' objects into pieces.
- The lawn package is a client for 'Turfjs' for 'geospatial'analysis.
- The rcosmo package offers various tools for geometric transformations, computations, and statistical analysis of spherical data.
- The areal package can be used to interpolate overlapping but incongruent polygons, also known as areal weighted interpolation.
- The qualmap package can be used to digitize qualitative GIS data.

**Data processing - raster and imagery data**

- The landsat package with accompanying JSS paper provides tools for exploring and developing correction tools for remote sensing data.

**Data cleaning**

- cleangeo may be used to inspect spatial objects, facilitate handling and reporting of topology errors and geometry validity issues. It may be used to reduce the likelihood of having issues when doing spatial data processing.
- lwgeom may also be used to facilitate handling and reporting of topology errors and geometry validity issues.

**Base visualization packages**

- Packages such as sp, sf, raster and rasterVis provide basic visualization methods through the generic plot function
- RColorBrewer provides very useful colour palettes that may
be modified or extended using the
`colorRampPalette`

function provided with R. - viridis also provides colour palettes designed with consideration for colorblindness and printing in grayscale.
- classInt package provides functions for choosing class intervals for thematic cartography.
- rcosmo package provides several tools to interactively visualize HEALPix data, in particular, to plot data in arbitrary spherical windows.

**Thematic cartography packages**

- tmap package provides a modern basis for thematic mapping optionally using a Grammar of Graphics syntax. Because it has a custom grid graphics platform, it obviates the need to fortify geometries to use with ggplot2.
- quickmapr provides a simple method to visualize 'sp' and 'raster' objects, allows for basic zooming, panning, identifying, and labeling of spatial objects, and does not require that the data be in geographic coordinates.
- cartography package allows various cartographic representations such as proportional symbols, choropleth, typology, flows or discontinuities.
- The mapmisc package is a minimal, light-weight set of tools for producing nice looking maps in R, with support for map projections.
- Additional processing and mapping functions are available in PBSmapping package; PBSmodelling provides modelling support. In addition, GEOmap provides mapping facilities directed to meet the needs of geologists, and uses the geomapdata package.

**Packages based on web-mapping frameworks**

- mapview, leaflet and leafletR packages provide methods to view spatial objects interactively, usually on a web mapping base.
- RgoogleMaps package for accessing Google Maps(TM) may be useful if the user wishes to place a map backdrop behind other displays.
- plotGoogleMaps package provides methods for the visualisation of spatial and spatio-temporal objects in Google Maps in a web browser.
- plotKML is a package providing methods for the visualisation of spatial and spatio-temporal objects in Google Earth.
- ggmap may be used for spatial visualisation with Google Maps and OpenStreetMap;ggsn provides North arrows and scales for such maps.
- mapedit provides an R shiny widget based on leaflet for editing or creating sf geometries.

**Building Cartograms**

- The micromap package provides linked micromaps using ggplot2.
- recmap package provides rectangular cartograms with rectangle sizes reflecting for example population.
- statebins provides a simpler binning approach to US states.
- cartogram package allows for constructions of a continuous area cartogram by a rubber sheet distortion algorithm, non-contiguous Area Cartograms, and non-overlapping Circles Cartogram.
- geogrid package turns polygons into rectangular or hexagonal cartograms.

**Point pattern analysis**

The spatial package is a recommended package shipped with base R, and contains several core functions, including an implementation of Khat by its author, Prof. Ripley. In addition, spatstat allows freedom in defining the region(s) of interest, and makes extensions to marked processes and spatial covariates. Its strengths are model-fitting and simulation, and it has a useful homepage. It is the only package that will enable the user to fit inhomogeneous point process models with interpoint interactions. The spatgraphs package provides graphs, graph visualisation and graph based summaries to be used with spatial point pattern analysis. The splancs package also allows point data to be analysed within a polygonal region of interest, and covers many methods, including 2D kernel densities. The smacpod package provides various statistical methods for analyzing case-control point data. The methods available closely follow those in chapter 6 of Applied Spatial Statistics for Public Health Data by Waller and Gotway (2004).

ecespa provides wrappers, functions and data for spatial point pattern analysis, used in the book on Spatial Ecology of the ECESPA/AEET. The functions for binning points on grids in ash may also be of interest. The ads package perform first- and second-order multi-scale analyses derived from Ripley's K-function. The aspace package is a collection of functions for estimating centrographic statistics and computational geometries from spatial point patterns. DSpat contains functions for spatial modelling for distance sampling data and spatialsegregation provides segregation measures for multitype spatial point patterns. GriegSmith uses the Grieg-Smith method on 2 dimensional spatial data. The dbmss package allows simple computation of a full set of spatial statistic functions of distance, including classical ones (Ripley's K and others) and more recent ones used by spatial economists (Duranton and Overman's Kd, Marcon and Puech's M). It relies on spatstat for core calculation. latticeDensity contains functions that compute the lattice-based density estimator of Barry and McIntyre, which accounts for point processes in two-dimensional regions with irregular boundaries and holes.

**Geostatistics**

The gstat package provides a wide range of functions for univariate and multivariate geostatistics, also for larger datasets, while geoR and geoRglm contain functions for model-based geostatistics. Variogram diagnostics may be carried out with vardiag. Automated interpolation using gstat is available in automap. This family of packages is supplemented by intamap with procedures for automated interpolation. A similar wide range of functions is to be found in the fields package. The spatial package is shipped with base R, and contains several core functions. The spBayes package fits Gaussian univariate and multivariate models with MCMC. ramps is a different Bayesian geostatistical modelling package. The geospt package contains some geostatistical and radial basis functions, including prediction and cross validation. Besides, it includes functions for the design of optimal spatial sampling networks based on geostatistical modelling. spsann is another package to offer functions to optimize sample configurations, using spatial simulated annealing. The geostatsp package offers geostatistical modelling facilities using Raster and SpatialPoints objects are provided. Non-Gaussian models are fit using INLA, and Gaussian geostatistical models use Maximum Likelihood Estimation. The rcosmo package offers various geostatistics methods for spherical data: descriptive statistics, entropy based methods, covariance-variogram methods, etc. Most of rcosmo features were developed for Cosmic Microwave Background data, but they can also be used for any spherical data. The FRK package is a tool for spatial/spatio-temporal modelling and prediction with large datasets. The approach, discussed in Cressie and Johannesson (2008), decomposes the field, and hence the covariance function, using a fixed set of n basis functions, where n is typically much smaller than the number of data points (or polygons) m.

The RandomFields package provides functions for the simulation and analysis of random fields, and variogram model descriptions can be passed between geoR, gstat and this package. SpatialExtremes proposes several approaches for spatial extremes modelling using RandomFields. In addition, CompRandFld, constrainedKriging and geospt provide alternative approaches to geostatistical modelling. The spTimer package is able to fit, spatially predict and temporally forecast large amounts of space-time data using [1] Bayesian Gaussian Process (GP) Models, [2] Bayesian Auto-Regressive (AR) Models, and [3] Bayesian Gaussian Predictive Processes (GPP) based AR Models. The rtop package provides functions for the geostatistical interpolation of data with irregular spatial support such as runoff related data or data from administrative units. The georob package provides functions for fitting linear models with spatially correlated errors by robust and Gaussian Restricted Maximum Likelihood and for computing robust and customary point and block kriging predictions, along with utility functions for cross-validation and for unbiased back-transformation of kriging predictions of log-transformed data. The SpatialTools package has an emphasis on kriging, and provides functions for prediction and simulation. It is extended by ExceedanceTools, which provides tools for constructing confidence regions for exceedance regions and contour lines. The gear package implements common geostatistical methods in a clean, straightforward, efficient manner, and is said to be a quasi reboot of SpatialTools. The sperrorest package implements spatial error estimation and permutation-based spatial variable importance using different spatial cross-validation and spatial block bootstrap methods. The spm package provides functions for hybrid geostatistical and machine learning methods for spatial predictive modelling. It currently contains two commonly used geostatistical methods, two machine learning methods, four hybrid methods and two averaging methods.

The sgeostat package is also available. Within the same general topical area are the deldir and tripack packages for triangulation and the akima package for spline interpolation; the MBA package provides scattered data interpolation with multilevel B-splines. In addition, there are the spatialCovariance package, which supports the computation of spatial covariance matrices for data on rectangles, the regress package building in part on spatialCovariance, and the tgp package. The Stem package provides for the estimation of the parameters of a spatio-temporal model using the EM algorithm, and the estimation of the parameter standard errors using a spatio-temporal parametric bootstrap. FieldSim is another random fields simulations package. The SSN is for geostatistical modeling for data on stream networks, including models based on in-stream distance. Models are created using moving average constructions. Spatial linear models, including covariates, can be fit with ML or REML. Mapping and other graphical functions are included. RSurvey may be used as a processing program for spatially distributed data, and is capable of error corrections and data visualisation.

**Disease mapping and areal data analysis**

DCluster is a package for the detection of
spatial clusters of diseases. It extends and depends on the
spdep package, which provides basic functions for
building neighbour lists and spatial weights, tests for spatial
autocorrelation for areal data like Moran's I. Functions for
fitting spatial regression models, such as SAR and CAR models prior to
version 1.1-1 are now in spatialreg. These
models assume that the spatial dependence can be described by known
weights. In spatialreg, the `ME`

and
`SpatialFiltering`

functions provide Moran Eigenvector
model fitting, as do more modern functions in the spmoran
package. The SpatialEpi package provides implementations of
cluster detection and disease mapping functions, including Bayesian
cluster detection, and supports strata. The smerc package
provides statistical methods for the analysis of data areal data, with
a focus on cluster detection. The diseasemapping
package offers the formatting of population and case data, calculation
of Standardized Incidence Ratios, and fitting the BYM model using
INLA. Regionalisation of polygon
objects is provided by AMOEBA: a function to calculate
spatial clusters using the Getis-Ord local statistic. It searches
irregular clusters (ecotopes) on a map, and by `skater`

in spdep. The seg and OasisR packages
provide functions for measuring spatial segregation; OasisR
includes Monte Carlo simulations to test the indices.
The spgwr package contains an implementation of
geographically weighted regression methods for exploring possible
non-stationarity. The gwrr package fits geographically
weighted regression (GWR) models and has tools to diagnose and
remediate collinearity in the GWR models. Also fits geographically
weighted ridge regression (GWRR) and geographically weighted lasso
(GWL) models. The GWmodel package contains functions for
computing geographically weighted (GW) models. Specifically, basic,
robust, local ridge, heteroskedastic, mixed, multiscale, generalised
and space-time GWR; GW summary statistics, GW PCA and GW discriminant analysis;
associated tests and diagnostics; and options for a range of distance metrics.
The lctools package provides researchers and educators with easy-to-learn user
friendly tools for calculating key spatial statistics and to apply
simple as well as advanced methods of spatial analysis in real data.
These include: Local Pearson and Geographically Weighted Pearson
Correlation Coefficients, Spatial Inequality Measures (Gini, Spatial
Gini, LQ, Focal LQ), Spatial Autocorrelation (Global and Local
Moran's I), several Geographically Weighted Regression techniques and
other Spatial Analysis tools (other geographically weighted statistics).
This package also contains functions for measuring the significance of
each statistic calculated, mainly based on Monte Carlo simulations.
The sparr package provides another
approach to relative risks. The CARBayes package
implements Bayesian hierarchical spatial areal unit models. In
such models, the spatial correlation is modelled by a set of random
effects, which are assigned a conditional autoregressive (CAR) prior
distribution. Examples of the models included are the BYM model as
well as a recently developed localised spatial smoothing model.
The spaMM package fits spatial GLMMs,
using the Matern correlation function as the basic model for spatial
random effects. The PReMiuM package is for profile
regression, which is a Dirichlet process Bayesian clustering model;
it provides a spatial CAR term that can be included in the fixed
effects (which are global, ie. non-cluster specific, parameters)
to account for any spatial correlation in the residuals.
The spacom package provides tools to
construct and exploit spatially weighted context data, and further
allows combining the resulting spatially weighted context data with
individual-level predictor and outcome variables, for the purposes
of multilevel modelling.
The geospacom package generates
distance matrices from shape files and represents spatially weighted
multilevel analysis results. Spatial survival analysis is provided by
the spatsurv - Bayesian inference for parametric proportional
hazards spatial survival models - and spBayesSurv - Bayesian
Modeling and Analysis of Spatially Correlated Survival Data - packages.
The spselect package provides modelling functions based on
forward stepwise regression, incremental forward stagewise regression,
least angle regression (LARS), and lasso models for selecting the
spatial scale of covariates in regression models.

**Spatial regression**

The choice of function for spatial regression will depend on the support available. If the data are characterised by point support and the spatial process is continuous, geostatistical methods may be used, or functions in the nlme package. If the support is areal, and the spatial process is not being treated as continuous, functions provided in the spatialreg package may be used. This package can also be seen as providing spatial econometrics functions, and, as noted above, provides basic functions for building neighbour lists and spatial weights, tests for spatial autocorrelation for areal data like Moran's I, and functions for fitting spatial regression models. spdep provides the full range of local indicators of spatial association, such as local Moran's I and diagnostic tools for fitted linear models, including Lagrange Multiplier tests. Spatial regression models that can be fitted using maximum likelihood and Bayesian MCMC methods in spatialreg include spatial lag models, spatial error models, and spatial Durbin models. For larger data sets, sparse matrix techniques can be used for maximum likelihood fits, while spatial two-stage least squares and generalised method of moments estimators are an alternative. When using GMM, sphet can be used to accommodate both autocorrelation and heteroskedasticity. The McSpatial provides functions for locally weighted regression, semiparametric and conditionally parametric regression, fourier and cubic spline functions, GMM and linearized spatial logit and probit, k-density functions and counterfactuals, nonparametric quantile regression and conditional density functions, Machado-Mata decomposition for quantile regressions, spatial AR model, repeat sales models, and conditionally parametric logit and probit. The splm package provides methods for fitting spatial panel data by maximum likelihood and GM. The two small packages S2sls and spanel provide alternative implementations without most of the facilities of splm. The HSAR package provides Hierarchical Spatial Autoregressive Models (HSAR), based on a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. spatialprobit make possible Bayesian estimation of the spatial autoregressive probit model (SAR probit model). The ProbitSpatial package provides methods for fitting Binomial spatial probit models to larger data sets; spatial autoregressive (SAR) and spatial error (SEM) probit models are included. The starma package provides functions to identify, estimate and diagnose a Space-Time AutoRegressive Moving Average (STARMA) model.

**Ecological analysis**

There are many packages for analysing ecological and environmental data. They include:

- ade4 for exploratory and Euclidean methods in the environmental sciences, the adehabitat family of packages for the analysis of habitat selection by animals (adehabitatHR, adehabitatHS, adehabitatLT, and adehabitatMA)
- pastecs for the regulation, decomposition and analysis of space-time series
- vegan for ordination methods and other useful functions for community and vegetation ecologists, and many other functions in other contributed packages. One such is tripEstimation, basing on the classes provided by trip. ncf has entered CRAN recently, and provides a range of spatial nonparametric covariance functions.
- The spind package provides functions for spatial methods based on generalized estimating equations (GEE) and wavelet-revised methods (WRM), functions for scaling by wavelet multiresolution regression (WMRR), conducting multi-model inference, and stepwise model selection.
- rangeMapper is a package to manipulate species range (extent-of-occurrence) maps, mainly tools for easy generation of biodiversity (species richness) or life-history traits maps.
- The siplab package is a platform for experimenting with spatially explicit individual-based vegetation models.
- ModelMap builds on other packages to create models using underlying GIS data.
- The SpatialPosition computes spatial position models: Stewart potentials, Reilly catchment areas, Huff catchment areas.
- The Watersheds package provides methods for watersheds aggregation and spatial drainage network analysis.
- Rcitrus (off-CRAN package) is for the spatial analysis of plant disease incidence.
- The ngspatial package provides tools for analyzing spatial data, especially non-Gaussian areal data. It supports the sparse spatial generalized linear mixed model of Hughes and Haran (2013) and the centered autologistic model of Caragea and Kaiser (2009).
- landscapemetrics package calculates landscape metrics for categorical landscape patterns. It can be used as a drop-in replacement for FRAGSTATS, as it offers a reproducible workflow for landscape analysis in a single environment. It also provides several visualization functions, e.g. to show all labeled patches or the core area of all patches.

The Environmetrics Task View contains a much more complete survey of relevant functions and packages.

- Task view: SpatioTemporal
- Task view: Environmetrics
- R-SIG-Geo mailing list

7 months ago by Aurélie Siberchicot

Analysis of Ecological Data: Exploratory and Euclidean Methods in Environmental Sciences

4 months ago by Albrecht Gebhardt

Interpolation of Irregularly and Regularly Spaced Data

8 years ago by Ron N. Buliung

A collection of functions for estimating centrographic statistics and computational geometries for spatial point patterns

2 months ago by Dmitry Shkolnik

Access, Retrieve, and Work with Canadian Census Data and Geography

6 months ago by Duncan Lee

Spatial Generalised Linear Mixed Models for Areal Unit Data

9 months ago by Simone Padoan

Composite-Likelihood Based Analysis of Random Fields

5 years ago by Christoph Hofer

Constrained, Covariance-Matching Constrained and Universal Point or Block Kriging

6 years ago by Virgilio Gómez-Rubio

Functions for the Detection of Spatial Clusters of Diseases

13 days ago by Rolf Turner

Delaunay Triangulation and Dirichlet (Voronoi) Tessellation

5 months ago by Patrick Brown

Modelling Spatial Variation in Disease Risk for Areal Data

7 months ago by Marcelino de la Cruz Rot

Functions for Spatial Point Pattern Analysis

6 years ago by Joshua French

Confidence regions for exceedance sets and contour lines

7 months ago by Jonathan Asher Greenberg

Wrappers for the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL) Utilities

2 years ago by Joseph Bailey

Turn Geospatial Polygons into Regular or Hexagonal Grids

6 months ago by Scott Chamberlain

Convert Data from and to 'GeoJSON' or 'TopoJSON'

2 months ago by Emmanuel Blondel

Tools for Reading and Writing ISO/OGC Geographic Metadata

2 years ago by Barry Rowlingson

Interface to the "Geonames" Spatial Query Web Service

5 years ago by Alí Santacruz

Geostatistical Analysis and Design of Optimal Spatial Sampling Networks

2 years ago by Oswaldo Santos Baquero

North Symbols and Scale Bars for Maps Created with 'ggplot2' or 'ggmap'

14 days ago by Jason C. Fisher

Miscellaneous Functions for the USGS INL Project Office

4 months ago by Edzer Pebesma

Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Geostatistical Modelling, Prediction and Simulation

8 months ago by Michael Friendly

Maps, Data and Methods Related to Guerry (1833) "Moral Statistics of France"

7 years ago by David Wheeler

Fits geographically weighted regression models with diagnostic tools

9 months ago by Sarah Goslee

Radiometric and Topographic Correction of Satellite Imagery

9 days ago by Maximillian H.K. Hesselbarth

Landscape Metrics for Categorical Map Patterns

5 months ago by Ronald Barry

Density Estimation and Nonparametric Regression on Irregular Regions

6 months ago by Stamatis Kalogirou

Local Correlation, Spatial Inequalities, Geographically Weighted Regression and Other Tools

4 years ago by Christian Graul

Interactive Web-Maps Based on the Leaflet JavaScript Library

3 months ago by Edzer Pebesma

Bindings to Selected 'liblwgeom' Functions for Simple Features

7 months ago by Jan Philipp Dietrich

Data Class and Tools for Handling Spatial-Temporal Data

4 months ago by Benoit Simon-Bouhet

Import, Plot and Analyze Bathymetric and Topographic Data

2 years ago by Elizabeth Freeman

Modeling and Map Production using Random Forest and Related Stochastic Models

3 years ago by Philippe Grosjean

Package for Analysis of Space-Time Ecological Series

a year ago by David Pierce

Interface to Unidata netCDF (Version 4 or Earlier) Format Data Files

5 months ago by John Hughes

Fitting the Centered Autologistic and Sparse Spatial Generalized Linear Mixed Models for Areal Data

4 months ago by Mihai Tivadar

Outright Tool for the Analysis of Spatial Inequalities and Segregation

2 years ago by Rowan Haigh

GUI Tools Made Easy: Interact with Models and Explore Data

7 months ago by Tomislav Hengl

Visualization of Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Objects in Google Earth

a year ago by Philippe Marchand

Tools for Interacting with 'PostgreSQL' / 'PostGIS' Databases

a year ago by Silvia Liverani

Dirichlet Process Bayesian Clustering, Profile Regression

a year ago by Mihai Valcu

A Platform for the Study of Macro-Ecology of Life History Traits

3 months ago by Karl W Broman

Gaussian Linear Models with Linear Covariance Structure

18 days ago by Scott Chamberlain

Interface to the Global 'Biodiversity' Information Facility API

a year ago by Roger Bivand

Interface Between GRASS 7 Geographical Information System and R

3 years ago by Tomoaki Nishiyama

R Interface to the 'PostgreSQL' Database System

5 years ago by Albrecht Gebhardt

An Object-Oriented Framework for Geostatistical Modeling in S+

4 months ago by Joshua French

Statistical Methods for the Analysis of Case-Control Point Data

5 years ago by David Clifford

Computation of Spatial Covariance Matrices for Data on Rectangles

2 years ago by Tuomas Rajala

Segregation Measures for Multitype Spatial Point Patterns

4 months ago by Adrian Baddeley

Spatial Point Pattern Analysis, Model-Fitting, Simulation, Tests

5 months ago by Benjamin M. Taylor

Bayesian Spatial Survival Analysis with Parametric Proportional Hazards Models

7 months ago by Haiming Zhou

Bayesian Modeling and Analysis of Spatially Correlated Survival Data

8 months ago by Dennis Walvoort

Spatial Coverage Sampling and Random Sampling from Compact Geographical Strata

4 months ago by Alexander Brenning

Perform Spatial Error Estimation and Variable Importance in Parallel

5 years ago by Roger Bivand

Interface Between GRASS 6+ Geographical Information System and R

3 years ago by Gianfranco Piras

Estimation of Spatial Autoregressive Models with and without Heteroscedasticity

2 months ago by Daisuke Murakami

Moran Eigenvector-Based Scalable Spatial Additive Mixed Modeling

a year ago by Alessandro Samuel-Rosa

Optimization of Sample Configurations using Spatial Simulated Annealing

4 years ago by Lauren Grant

Selecting Spatial Scale of Covariates in Regression Models

5 years ago by Felix Cheysson

Modelling Space Time AutoRegressive Moving Average (STARMA) Processes

4 months ago by Kyle Walker

Load US Census Boundary and Attribute Data as 'tidyverse' and 'sf'-Ready Data Frames

5 years ago by Michael D. Sumner

Metropolis Sampler and Supporting Functions for Estimating Animal Movement from Archival Tags and Satellite Fixes

8 years ago by Zack W. Almquist

US Census 2000 Designated Places Shapefiles and Additional Demographic Data

8 years ago by Zack W. Almquist

US Census 2000 Tract Level Shapefiles and Additional Demographic Data

5 years ago by J. A. Torres-Matallana

Spatial Watershed Aggregation and Spatial Drainage Network Analysis

4 months ago by Christopher Prener

Opinionated Approach for Digitizing Semi-Structured Qualitative GIS Data